Article

Guidelines for daily carbohydrate intake: do athletes achieve them?

Department of Sports Nutrition, Australian Institute of Sport, Belconnen, ACT, Australia.
Sports Medicine (Impact Factor: 5.32). 02/2001; 31(4):267-99. DOI: 10.2165/00007256-200131040-00003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Official dietary guidelines for athletes are unanimous in their recommendation of high carbohydrate (CHO) intakes in routine or training diets. These guidelines have been criticised on the basis of a lack of scientific support for superior training adaptations and performance, and the apparent failure of successful athletes to achieve such dietary practices. Part of the problem rests with the expression of CHO intake guidelines in terms of percentage of dietary energy. It is preferable to provide recommendations for routine CHO intake in grams (relative to the body mass of the athlete) and allow flexibility for the athlete to meet these targets within the context of their energy needs and other dietary goals. CHO intake ranges of 5 to 7 g/kg/day for general training needs and 7 to 10 g/kg/day for the increased needs of endurance athletes are suggested. The limitations of dietary survey techniques should be recognised when assessing the adequacy of the dietary practices of athletes. In particular, the errors caused by under-reporting or undereating during the period of the dietary survey must be taken into account. A review of the current dietary survey literature of athletes shows that a typical male athlete achieves CHO intake within the recommended range (on a g/kg basis). Individual athletes may need nutritional education or dietary counselling to fine-tune their eating habits to meet specific CHO intake targets. Female athletes, particularly endurance athletes, are less likely to achieve these CHO intake guidelines. This is due to chronic or periodic restriction of total energy intake in order to achieve or maintain low levels of body fat. With professional counselling, female athletes may be helped to find a balance between bodyweight control issues and fuel intake goals. Although we look to the top athletes as role models, it is understandable that many do not achieve optimal nutrition practices. The real or apparent failure of these athletes to achieve the daily CHO intakes recommended by sports nutritionists does not necessarily invalidate the benefits of meeting such guidelines. Further longitudinal studies of training adaptation and performance are needed to determine differences in the outcomes of high versus moderate CHO intakes. In the meantime, the recommendations of sports nutritionists are based on plentiful evidence that increased CHO availability enhances endurance and performance during single exercise sessions.

18 Followers
 · 
1,033 Views
  • Archivos latinoamericanos de nutrición 12/2001; 51(4):321-331. · 0.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated seventy-four ultra-mountain bikers (MTBers) competing in the solo category in the first descriptive field study to detail nutrition habits and the most common food before during and after the 24 hour race using questionnaires. During the race, bananas (86.5%), energy bars (50.0%), apples (43.2%) and cheese (43.2%) were the most commonly consumed food, followed by bread (44.6%), rice (33.8%) and bananas (33.8%) after the race. Average fluid intake was 0.5 ± 0.2 l/h. The main beverage was isotonic sports drink (82.4%) during and pure water (66.2%) after the race. The most preferred four supplements in the four weeks before, the day before, during and after the race were vitamin C (35.1%), magnesium (44.6%), magnesium (43.2%) and branched-chain amino acids (24.3%), respectively. Total frequency of food intake (30.6 ± 10.5 times/24 hrs) was associated with fluid intake (r = 0.43, P = 0.04) and both were highest at the beginning of the race and lower during the night hours and the last race segment in a subgroup of twenty-three ultra-MTBers. Supplement intake frequency (6.8 ± 8.4 times/24 hrs) was highest during the night hours and lower at the beginning and end of the race. Elevated food and fluid intake among participants tracked across all race segments (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the nutrition strategy employed by ultra-MTBers was similar to those demonstrated in previous studies of ultra-cyclists with some exceptions among selected individuals.
    SpringerPlus 01/2014; 3:715. DOI:10.1186/2193-1801-3-715
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The anthropometric profile and food intake play a key role in sports performance; however, there is little information available regarding Brazilian tennis players. AIM: the present study aimed to evaluate the food intake and the anthropometric profile of professional and amateur tennis players. METHODS: twenty-four tennis players were distributed in two groups: professionals (PRO; n = 9) and amateurs (AM; n = 15). The athletes were evaluated on their anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, circumferences and skin folders). Body fat was estimated from three different equations. Food intake was determined by a 3-day food diary. RESULTS: there were no significant differences from anthropometric profile between PRO and AM (body weight: 69.5 ± 9.8 kg and 66.0 ± 5.0 kg; height: 177.9 ± 4.3 cm and 175.6 ± 2.7 cm, BMI: 23.5 ± 1.4 kg/m2 and 22.6 ± 0.8 kg/m2 and body fat: 13.0 ± 5.5% and 13.7 ± 2.4%, respectively). Significant difference between the energy expenditure and estimation and reported energy intake was observed. Both groups showed low carbohydrate (AM: 6.3 ± 0.5 g/kg/day and PRO: 6.5 ± 0.7 g/kg/day) and high protein intake AM: 2.4 ± 0.2 g/kg/day and PRO: 2.3 ± 0.3 g/kg/day) compared to the current recommendations. Very low calcium intake was observed (AM: 798.1 ± 786.3 mg/day and PRO: 766.9 ± 602.4 mg/day). CONCLUSION: no significant differences were detected for food intake pattern and anthropometric profile between PRO and AM. The results presented herein reinforce the relevance of nutritional planning in order to achieve specific demands of tennis and maximize performance.
    Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte 12/2009; 15(6):436-440. · 0.16 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
121 Downloads
Available from
Jun 1, 2014