Enhancement of hepatitis C virus RNA replication by cell culture-adaptive mutations.
ABSTRACT Studies of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication cycle have been made possible with the development of subgenomic selectable RNAs that replicate autonomously in cultured cells. In these replicons the region encoding the HCV structural proteins was replaced by the neomycin phosphotransferase gene, allowing the selection of transfected cells that support high-level replication of these RNAs. Subsequent analyses revealed that, within selected cells, HCV RNAs had acquired adaptive mutations that increased the efficiency of colony formation by an unknown mechanism. Using a panel of replicons that differed in their degrees of cell culture adaptation, in this study we show that adaptive mutations enhance RNA replication. Transient-transfection assays that did not require selection of transfected cells demonstrated a clear correlation between the level of adaptation and RNA replication. The highest replication level was found with an adapted replicon carrying two amino acid substitutions located in NS3 and one in NS5A that acted synergistically. In contrast, the nonadapted RNA replicated only transiently and at a low level. The correlation between the efficiency of colony formation and RNA replication was corroborated with replicons in which the selectable marker gene was replaced by the gene encoding firefly luciferase. Upon transfection of naive Huh-7 cells, the levels of luciferase activity directly reflected the replication efficiencies of the various replicon RNAs. These results show that cell culture-adaptive mutations enhance HCV RNA replication.
Article: Phosphorylation of the hepatitis C virus NS5A protein in vitro and in vivo: properties of the NS5A-associated kinase.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: NS5A derived from a hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b isolate has previously been shown to undergo phosphorylation on serine residues (T. Kaneko, Y. Tanji, S. Satoh, M. Hijikata, S. Asabe, K. Kimura, and K. Shimotohno, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 205:320-326, 1994). In this report, phosphorylation of NS5A derived from HCV isolates of the 1a and distantly related 2a genotypes is demonstrated. Phosphoamino acid analysis of NS5A from the 1a isolate indicated that phosphorylation occurs predominantly on serine, with a minor fraction of threonine residues also being phosphorylated. NS5A phosphorylation was observed in diverse cell types, including COS-1, BHK-21, HeLa, and the hepatoma cell line HuH-7. Phosphorylation of a glutathione S-transferase (GST)/HCV-H NS5A fusion protein was also demonstrated in an in vitro kinase assay. This activity seemed to be highest when the pH of the reaction was neutral or slightly alkaline and displayed a preference for Mn2+ over Mg2+, with an optimum concentration of approximately 10 mM Mn2+. Somewhat surprisingly, in vitro phosphorylation of NS5A was inhibited by the addition of > or = 0.25 mM Ca2+ to reaction buffer containing Mn2+ and/or Mg2+. Comparison of phosphopeptide maps of NS5A phosphorylated in vitro and in cultured cells showed that most of the phosphopeptides comigrated, suggesting that one or more kinases involved in NS5A phosphorylation in vivo and in vitro are the same. The effects of various kinase inhibitors on NS5A phosphorylation were consistent with a kinase activity belonging to the CMGC group of serine-threonine kinases. The development of an in vitro kinase assay for NS5A phosphorylation should facilitate identification of kinase(s) responsible for its phosphorylation and of phosphorylation sites which may influence the function of NS5A in HCV propagation.Journal of Virology 10/1997; 71(10):7187-97. · 5.40 Impact Factor
Article: Multiple infection, recombination and genome relationships among begomovirus isolates found in cotton and other plants in Pakistan.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Begomoviruses occur in many plant species in Pakistan and are associated with an epidemic of cotton leaf curl disease that has developed since 1985. PCR analysis with primer pairs specific for each of four already sequenced types of DNA-A of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV-PK types a, 26, 72b and 804a), or for okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV), indicated that many individual naturally infected plants of cotton and other malvaceous species contained two or three begomovirus sequences. Similarly, sequence differences among overlapping fragments of begomovirus DNA-A, amplified from individual naturally infected plants, indicated much multiple infection in malvaceous and non-malvaceous species. Some cotton plants contained DNA-A sequences typical of begomoviruses from non-malvaceous species, and some non-malvaceous plants contained sequences typical of CLCuV-PK. Some DNA-A sequences were chimaeric; they each included elements typical of different types of CLCuV-PK, or of different malvaceous and/or non-malvaceous begomoviruses. Often an apparent recombination site occurred at the origin of replication. No complete CLCuV-PK DNA-A sequence was found in malvaceous or non-malvaceous species collected in Pakistan outside the area of the cotton leaf curl epidemic but chimaeric sequences, including a part that was typical of CLCuV-PK DNA-A, did occur there. We suggest that recombination among such pre-existing sequences was crucial for the emergence of CLCuV-PK. Recombination, following multiple infection, could also explain the network of relationships among many of the begomoviruses found in the Indian subcontinent, and their evolutionary divergence, as a group, from begomoviruses causing similar diseases in other geographical regions.Journal of General Virology 08/2000; 81(Pt 7):1839-49. · 3.36 Impact Factor
Article: [Environmental and indoor air exposure to asbestos fiber dust as a risk and causal factor of diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma].[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In an interdisciplinary, multicentre case control study of the causal factors of the diffuse malignant mesothelioma (DMM) standardised histories where taken from n = 324 Patients suffering from DMM, n = 315 hospital control patients (KK) and n = 182 population controls (PK). For 66 DMM, 149 KK and 107 PK a risk from asbestos fibre dust at the workplace was not detectable. For latter persons indoor and outdoor asbestos exposure outside of the workplace were investigated. The following factors were examined: neighbourhood exposure from companies using asbestos, living in big cities and nearby main traffic roads, building materials containing asbestos, electric storage heaters and household contacts. For using electric storage heaters a statistically significant increased odds ratio (OR) was observed for DMM as well in comparison with KK (OR = 2.42; 95%-CI: 1.01-5.72) and in comparison for PK (OR = 2.91; 95%-CI: 1.08-7.80). Only outside of Hamburg an increased OR compared to KK was observed for people living in the neighbourhood of asbestos factories (OR = 16.3; 95%-CI: 1.35-196.8) and also, but only in Hamburg, compared to PK living nearby main traffic roads. There is only a trend for a mesothelioma-risk for household-contacts based on a few cases. In one DMM-patient without an occupational asbestos exposure the lung dust fibre analysis yielded 2.912 FB and 1.459 x 10(3) crocydolithe fibres per gram dried lung tissue. As a child he lived in the immediate vicinity of the blue asbestos mine in Wittenoom, Australia. Therefore in special cases a para-occupational asbestos or a neighbourhood asbestos exposure can be demonstrated as a risk factor of diffuse malignant mesothelioma.Zentralblatt für Hygiene und Umweltmedizin = International journal of hygiene and environmental medicine 12/1996; 199(1):1-23.