Shame and non-disclosure: a study of the emotional isolation of people referred for psychotherapy.
ABSTRACT Thirty-four people referred to an NHS psychotherapy department were given a modified form of Oatley and Duncan's (1992) emotion diary which included questions about whether each recorded emotion had been subsequently disclosed to anyone (for example a partner, friend or professional). One week later the diaries were collected and participants interviewed. Interviews focused, among other things, on reasons for nondisclosure of recorded emotional experiences and the relationship between shame and non-disclosure. The results indicated that a majority of the emotional incidents recorded in the diaries were not disclosed (68%). This result contrasts with studies on non-clinical samples in which only approximately 10% of everyday emotions are kept secret. Qualitative analysis of the interview data revealed that participants appeared to be habitual non-disclosers of emotional and personal experiences and that non-disclosure was related to the anticipation of negative interpersonal responses to disclosure (in particular labelling and judging responses) in addition to more self-critical factors including shame. It is suggested that these results add to the existing literature on shame by illustrating the interpersonal effects of shame in a clinical sample.
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ABSTRACT: We present a set of evolving guidelines for reviewing qualitative research, to serve four functions: to contribute to the process of legitimizing qualitative research; to ensure more appropriate and valid scientific reviews of qualitative manuscripts, theses, and dissertations; to encourage better quality control in qualitative research through better self- and other-monitoring; and to encourage further developments in approach and method. Building on a review of existing principles of good practice in qualitative research, we used an iterative process of revision and feedback from colleagues who engage in qualitative research, resulting in a set of seven guidelines common to both qualitative and quantitative research and seven guidelines especially pertinent to qualitative investigations in psychology and related social sciences. The Evolving Guidelines are subject to continuing revision and should not be used in a rigid manner, in order to avoid stifling creativity in this rapidly evolving, rich research tradition.British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 08/1999; 38(3):215 - 229.
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ABSTRACT: The role of bodily shame as a mediator between sexual or physical abuse and depression was investigated in a community sample of 101 women who had been followed for 8 years. In general, childhood and adult abuse were related to the occurrence of depression in the study period but when both were considered together, only adult abuse showed an independent association. However, childhood and adult abuse were both independently related to chronic or recurrent depression. Bodily shame was related to childhood abuse, and this association could not be accounted for by bodily dissatisfaction or low self-esteem. Bodily shame, but not childhood abuse, was related to chronic or recurrent depression when both factors were considered together and current depressive symptoms were controlled.Journal of Abnormal Psychology 06/1995; 104(2):277-85. · 4.86 Impact Factor
- The phenomenologyof shame and guilt:an empiricalinvestigation. 23-36..