Assay of protein tyrosine phosphatases by using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry
ABSTRACT A nonradioactive assay for protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), employing a tyrosine-phosphorylated peptide as a substrate, has been developed and applied to analyze purified enzymes, cell extracts, and immunoprecipitates. The reaction was followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in a linear and positive ion mode with delayed extraction. MALDI-TOF MS detects a loss of peptide mass by 80 Da as a result of dephosphorylation and, more importantly, it yields phospho-peptide to dephosphorylated product peak intensity ratios proportional to their concentration ratios. A strong bias of the MALDI-TOF MS toward detection of the non-phospho-peptide allows accurate detection of small fractions of dephosphorylation. The method is highly sensitive and reproducible. It can be applied to general assays of protein phosphatases with various phospho-peptides as substrates.
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ABSTRACT: Protein–nucleic acid complexes are commonly studied by photochemical cross-linking. UV-induced cross-linking of protein to nucleic acid may be followed by structural analysis of the conjugated protein to localize the cross-linked amino acids and thereby idey the nucleic acid binding site. Mass spectrometry is becoming increasingly popular for characterization of purified peptide–nucleic acid heteroconjugates derived from UV cross-linked protein–nucleic acid complexes. The efficiency of mass spectrometry-based methods is, however, hampered by the contrasting physico-chemical properties of nucleic acid and peptide entities present in such heteroconjugates. Sample preparation of the peptide–nucleic acid heteroconjugates is, therefore, a crucial step in any mass spectrometry-based analytical procedure. This study demonstrates the performance of four different MS-based strategies to characterize E. coli single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) that was UV-cross-linked to a 5-iodouracil containing DNA oligomer. Two methods were optimized to circumvent the need for standard liquid chromatography and gel electrophoresis, thereby dramatically increasing the overall sensitivity of the analysis. Enzymatic degradation of protein and oligonucleotide was combined with miniaturized sample preparation methods for enrichment and desalting of cross-linked peptide–nucleic acid heteroconjugates from complex mixtures prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Detailed characterization of the peptidic component of two different peptide–DNA heteroconjugates was accomplished by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and allowed assignment of tryptophan-54 and tryptophan-88 as candidate cross-linked residues. Sequencing of those peptide–DNA heteroconjugates by nanoelectrospray quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry ideied tryptophan-54 and tryptophan-88 as the sites of cross-linking. Although the UV-cross-linking yield of the protein–DNA complex did not exceed 15%, less than 100 pmole of SSB protein was required for detailed structural analysis by mass spectrometry.Protein Science 09/2001; 10(10):1989 - 2001. DOI:10.1110/ps.07601 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Besides their role in hemostasis, platelets are also highly involved in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Since important and initial steps of platelet activation and aggregation are regulated by phosphorylation events, a comprehensive study aimed at the characterization of phosphorylation-driven signaling cascades might lead to the identification of new target proteins for clinical research. However, it becomes increasingly evident that only a comprehensive phosphoproteomic approach may help to characterize functional protein networks and their dynamic alteration during physiological and pathophysiological processes in platelets. In this review, we discuss current methodologies in phosphoproteome research including their potentials as well as limitations, from sample preparation to classical approaches like radiolabeling and state-of-the-art mass spectrometry techniques.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2007; 1764(12):1963-76. DOI:10.1016/j.bbapap.2006.08.017 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An integrated analytical strategy for enrichment, detection and sequencing of phosphorylated peptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is reported. o-Phosphoric acid was found to enhance phosphopeptide ion signals in MALDI-MS when used as the acid dopant in 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB) matrix. The effect was largest for multiply phosphorylated peptides, which exhibited an up to ten-fold increase in ion intensity as compared with standard sample preparation methods. The enhanced phosphopeptide response was observed during MALDI-MS analysis of several peptide mixtures derived by proteolytic digestion of phosphoproteins. Furthermore, the mixture of 2,5-DHB and o-phosphoric acid was an excellent eluant for immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). Singly and multiply phosphorylated peptide species were efficiently recovered from Fe(III)-IMAC columns, reducing sample handling for phosphopeptide mapping by MALDI-MS and subsequent phosphopeptide sequencing by MALDI-MS/MS. The enhanced response of phosphopeptide ions in MALDI facilitates MS/MS of large (>3 kDa) multiply phosphorylated peptide species and reduces the amount of analyte needed for complete characterization of phosphoproteins.Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 08/2004; 18(15):1721-30. DOI:10.1002/rcm.1542 · 2.64 Impact Factor