Assay of protein tyrosine phosphatases by using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry
ABSTRACT A nonradioactive assay for protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), employing a tyrosine-phosphorylated peptide as a substrate, has been developed and applied to analyze purified enzymes, cell extracts, and immunoprecipitates. The reaction was followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in a linear and positive ion mode with delayed extraction. MALDI-TOF MS detects a loss of peptide mass by 80 Da as a result of dephosphorylation and, more importantly, it yields phospho-peptide to dephosphorylated product peak intensity ratios proportional to their concentration ratios. A strong bias of the MALDI-TOF MS toward detection of the non-phospho-peptide allows accurate detection of small fractions of dephosphorylation. The method is highly sensitive and reproducible. It can be applied to general assays of protein phosphatases with various phospho-peptides as substrates.
Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry 01/2005; 46:275-349. DOI:10.1016/S0166-526X(05)46005-5
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ABSTRACT: Enzyme-catalyzed reactions play key roles in disease pathology, thus making them relevant subjects of therapeutic inhibitor screening experiments. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) assays have been demonstrated to be able to replace established screening approaches. They offer increased sample throughput, but care must be taken to avoid instrumental bias from differences in ionization efficiencies. We compared a MALDI-triple-quadrupole (QqQ) method for the Dyrk1A peptide substrate woodtide to LC-MS, liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (LC-UV), luminescence, and radiometric assays. MALDI measurements were performed on a MALDI-QqQ instrument in the multiple-reaction monitoring mode. Different MALDI conditions were investigated to address whether matrix type, sample support, and MRM- or SIM-based detection conditions can be used to accommodate the molar responses of substrate peptide and its phosphorylated form. UV detection served as a reference method. The impact of MALDI matrix on IC50 values was small, even considering that matrix preparations were used that are known to alleviate response differences. IC50 values determined by MALDI were ca. 2-fold lower than those determined by LC-UV. Although MALDI generated lower ion yields for the phosphorylated peptide than for the peptide substrate, we found that a correction of compound potencies was readily possible using correction factors based on unbiased LC-UV results. A thorough method development delivered a robust assay with excellent performance (Z' > 0.91) that was close to that seen for LC-UV.Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 03/2014; 406(12). DOI:10.1007/s00216-014-7703-1 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Protein–nucleic acid complexes are commonly studied by photochemical cross-linking. UV-induced cross-linking of protein to nucleic acid may be followed by structural analysis of the conjugated protein to localize the cross-linked amino acids and thereby idey the nucleic acid binding site. Mass spectrometry is becoming increasingly popular for characterization of purified peptide–nucleic acid heteroconjugates derived from UV cross-linked protein–nucleic acid complexes. The efficiency of mass spectrometry-based methods is, however, hampered by the contrasting physico-chemical properties of nucleic acid and peptide entities present in such heteroconjugates. Sample preparation of the peptide–nucleic acid heteroconjugates is, therefore, a crucial step in any mass spectrometry-based analytical procedure. This study demonstrates the performance of four different MS-based strategies to characterize E. coli single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) that was UV-cross-linked to a 5-iodouracil containing DNA oligomer. Two methods were optimized to circumvent the need for standard liquid chromatography and gel electrophoresis, thereby dramatically increasing the overall sensitivity of the analysis. Enzymatic degradation of protein and oligonucleotide was combined with miniaturized sample preparation methods for enrichment and desalting of cross-linked peptide–nucleic acid heteroconjugates from complex mixtures prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Detailed characterization of the peptidic component of two different peptide–DNA heteroconjugates was accomplished by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and allowed assignment of tryptophan-54 and tryptophan-88 as candidate cross-linked residues. Sequencing of those peptide–DNA heteroconjugates by nanoelectrospray quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry ideied tryptophan-54 and tryptophan-88 as the sites of cross-linking. Although the UV-cross-linking yield of the protein–DNA complex did not exceed 15%, less than 100 pmole of SSB protein was required for detailed structural analysis by mass spectrometry.Protein Science 09/2001; 10(10):1989 - 2001. DOI:10.1110/ps.07601 · 2.86 Impact Factor