Early development of self-injurious behavior: an empirical study.

School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, UK.
American journal of mental retardation: AJMR (Impact Factor: 2.51). 04/2001; 106(2):189-99. DOI: 10.1352/0895-8017(2001)106<0189:EDOSIB>2.0.CO;2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The early development of SIB in young children with developmental disabilities was examined by tracking over an 18-month period 16 school-age children who had recently started to show early SIB. Naturalistic observations were conducted in each child's classroom every 3 months, and the association between early SIB and environmental events was examined. Results showed that for the 4 children whose early SIB had escalated over this period, there was a significant association between early SIB and low levels of social contact across observation points, supporting models of the development of SIB. This association might be considered as a risk marker for the exacerbation of SIB. Implications of this finding for targeting early interventions for SIB are discussed.

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    • "It also implies that some kind of topographic similarity between the proto-injurious behavior and the subsequent SIB should exist. In addition to the Hall et al. (2001) study just mentioned several other studies have provided evidence of the proto-injurious behavior hypothesis for some topographies of SIB. Berkson et al. (2001) examined body rocking and SIB in 39 young children between the ages of 3 and 40 months with severe disabilities in a longitudinal study. "
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the relation between stereotyped behavior and self-injurious behavior (SIB) for 1871 individuals with intellectual disabilities who had a score of >0 on the Behavior Problem Inventory (BPI-01; Rojahn et al., 2001). We report three main findings: First, structural equation modeling techniques (SEM) revealed that the BPI-01stereotyped behavior subscale scores predicted BPI-01 SIB subscale scores. Second, when stereotyped behavior was modeled as a predictor of SIB, mixture-modeling techniques revealed two groups of individuals: one in which stereotyped behavior was a strong, statistically significant predictor of SIB (69% of the sample), and another one in which stereotyped behavior was not a predictor of SIB (31%). Finally, two specific stereotyped behavior topographies (i.e., body rocking and yelling) were identified that significantly predicted five different SIB topographies (i.e., self-biting, head hitting, body hitting, self-pinching, and hair pulling). Results are discussed in terms of future research needed to identify bio-behavioral variables correlated with cases of SIB that can, and cannot, be predicted by the presence of stereotyped behavior.
    Research in Developmental Disabilities 11/2014; 36. DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.08.017 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    • "Being threatening or distasteful to staff, SIB becomes a setting event to escape SIB (Smalley, Certo, & Goetz, 1997), with avoidance 3 or defense behaviours, which may reinforce its aversive qualities and allow SIB to persist (Oliver et al., 1996; Hall et al., 2001). These emotion driven coping strategies (Mitchell & Hastings, 2001), increase the risk of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization i.e. treating people like objects and reduce the possibility of experiencing feelings of personal accomplishment (Hastings & Brown, 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present article is to critically analyse the literature concerning the factors that lead to non-interventionism towards self-injurious behaviour (SIB) in the field of intellectual disability and to make recommendations for the development of practice. It emerges that the limited behaviour analytic skills of practitioners impede the implementation of behavioural interventions and allow SIB to persist. The implications for the development of in-service training and managerial support that would disseminate the implementation of behavioural interventions are briefly discussed.
    Journal of Intellectual Disabilities 06/2014; DOI:10.1177/1744629514538875
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    • "There is substantial empirical evidence within the operant learning literature to suggest that social attention has a strong reinforcing effect on self-injurious and aggressive behaviors (e.g. Iwata et al., 1982; Lovaas, Freitag, Gold & Kassorla, 1965; Oliver, Hall & Murphy, 2005). It has been suggested that aggression could be sensitive to positive reinforcement in the form of access to adult attention, peer attention and tangible items (Hawkins, Peterson, Schweid & Bijou, 1966; Patterson, Littman & Bricker, 1967) and Marcus, Vollmer, Swanson, Roane & Ringdahl (2001) provide empirical evidence that aggression in children with intellectual disabilities can be positively or negatively reinforced. "
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    ABSTRACT: Kinship theory suggests that genomic imprinting could account for phenotypic behaviors that increase (in the case of Angelman syndrome) or decrease (for Prader-Willi syndrome) the drive to access social resources (adult contact) depending on the imprinting parent-of-origin. Difficult to manage behaviors, such as aggression that is common in Angelman syndrome, could serve the function of increasing social interaction. We hypothesise that the commonly reported aggressive behavior in children with Angelman syndrome will be attention maintained. Experimental functional analysis was carried out with twelve children with Angelman syndrome caused by either a deletion (n=10) or uniparental disomy (n=2). The relative increase and decrease of aggressive behaviors was observed in response to experimentally manipulated levels of adult attention and demand. Laughing and smiling, crying and frowning, and physical initiation with an adult were also measured. Aggression was seen in ten of the twelve children. One child evidenced a pattern of aggression across conditions consistent with maintenance by attention, three children showed higher levels of aggression during social interaction and two children showed escape motivated aggression. With the exception of one child the results did not confirm the hypothesis. However, the pattern of increased aggression in the high social contact condition combined with evidence of positive affect during this condition suggests aggression may serve to both maintain and initiate social contact and this interpretation is consistent with previous research. The negative results may also have been influenced by the age of the children and the low levels of observed aggression.
    Research in developmental disabilities 05/2009; 30(5):1095-106. DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2009.03.005 · 4.41 Impact Factor
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Jun 4, 2014