Fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression in human breast cancer cell culture supernatants and in breast cancer patients.
ABSTRACT Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is selectively expressed in certain human cancers, including carcinoma of the breast, prostate, colon, ovary, and endometrium, compared to normal human tissues and therefore is a putative tumor marker. In this study, we found FAS concentrations were elevated in cell culture supernatants during cell growth in two human breast cancer cell lines but not other cancer cell lines. A quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analysis were employed in this study. In addition, serum FAS levels were significantly higher in breast cancer patients with different clinical stages (Stage II: 0.59+/-0.09 units/l, Stage III: 0.79+/-0.13 units/l, and Stage IV: 1.39+/-0.35 units/l) compared with healthy subjects (0.27+/-0.02 units/l, P<0.05). Taken together, our data suggest that FAS expression may be a useful tumor marker for breast cancer and play a role in assessing cancer virulence.
SourceAvailable from: Tomoaki Ito[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. It is important to develop biomarkers for detecting new cancers at an early stage and for treating them early during recurrence in order to guide optimal treatment. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is highly expressed in numerous human cancers and thus could potentially serve as such a biomarker, but the potential utility of measuring FAS for detecting gastric cancer has not been previously investigated. The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary assessment of serum FAS as a marker of gastric carcinoma. The study included 47 patients with gastric cancer and 150 healthy subjects. Blood samples were collected from each cancer patient prior to treatment. Serum FAS levels were measured by ELISA and compared across the two groups of patients. Significantly higher levels of serum FAS were found in the gastric cancer patients [95% confidence interval (CI), 30.37-52.46] compared with the healthy controls (95% CI, 1.331-2.131), with elevated levels even in patients with early-stage tumors. These results indicate that measuring serum FAS levels has strong potential to provide a biomarker for the detection of gastric cancer, with high sensitivity and specificity.Oncology letters 03/2014; 7(3):616-620. DOI:10.3892/ol.2014.1793 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence that metabolic alterations play an important role in cancer development and progression. The metabolism of cancer cells is reprogrammed in order to support their rapid proliferation. Elevated fatty acid synthesis is one of the most important aberrations of cancer cell metabolism. An enhancement of fatty acids synthesis is required both for carcinogenesis and cancer cell survival, as inhibition of key lipogenic enzymes slows down the growth of tumor cells and impairs their survival. Based on the data that serum fatty acid synthase (FASN), also known as oncoantigen 519, is elevated in patients with certain types of cancer, its serum level was proposed as a marker of neoplasia. This review aims to demonstrate the changes in lipid metabolism and other metabolic processes associated with lipid metabolism in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common pancreatic neoplasm, characterized by high mortality. We also addressed the influence of some oncogenic factors and tumor suppressors on pancreatic cancer cell metabolism. Additionally the review discusses the potential role of elevated lipid synthesis in diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. In particular, FASN is a viable candidate for indicator of pathologic state, marker of neoplasia, as well as, pharmacological treatment target in pancreatic cancer. Recent research showed that, in addition to lipogenesis, certain cancer cells can use fatty acids from circulation, derived from diet (chylomicrons), synthesized in liver, or released from adipose tissue for their growth. Thus, the interactions between de novo lipogenesis and uptake of fatty acids from circulation by PDAC cells require further investigation.World Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2014; 20(9):2279-2303. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i9.2279 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background The lichen compound (+)-protolichesterinic acid (+)-PA, isolated from Iceland moss, has anti-proliferative effects on several cancer cell lines. The chemical structure of (+)-PA is similar to a known fatty acid synthase (FASN) inhibitor C75. Aims To test whether the anti-proliferative activity of (+)-PA is associated with effects on FASN and HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) and major signalling pathways. Synergism between (+)-PA and lapatinib, a HER2 active drug, was also evaluated. Materials and methods Pure compound was isolated by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and purity of (+)-PA analyzed by analytical HPLC. Cell viability was assessed using Crystal violet staining. FASN and HER2 expression was estimated by immunofluorescence. The Meso Scale Discovery (MSD)® assay was used to measure activation of ERK1/2 and AKT. Synergism was estimated by the CalcuSyn software. Results Treatment with (+)-PA increased FASN expression in SK-BR-3 cells, which overexpress FASN and HER2, implying a compensatory response to inhibition of FASN activity. HER2 expression was decreased suggesting secondary downregulation. ERK1/2 and AKT signalling pathways were inhibited, probably due to reduced levels of HER2. No effects were observed in T-47D cells. Synergism between (+)-PA and lapatinib was observed in the SK-BR-3 cells. Conclusion Results suggest that the primary effect of (+)-PA is inhibition of FASN activity. Synergistic effects with lapatinib were seen only in SK-BR-3 cells, and not T-47D cells, further supporting the notion that (+)-PA acts by inhibiting FASN with secondary effects on HER2 expression and signalling. (+)-PA could therefore be a suitable agent for further testing, alone or in combination treatment against HER2-overexpressing breast cancer.Phytomedicine 10/2014; 21(12):1717–1724. DOI:10.1016/j.phymed.2014.08.006 · 2.88 Impact Factor