Physical activity and cognitive decline, the role of the apolipoprotein e4 allele.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between level of physical activity and risk of cognitive decline at older age and its variation across carriers and noncarriers of the apolipoprotein e4 allele.
The association was studied in a cohort of 347 elderly Dutch men. Mean age of the study subjects was 74.6 +/- 4.3 yr in 1990. Physical activity was categorized in "maximal 1 h per day" versus "more than 1 h per day." Cognitive decline was defined as a drop MMSE score > 3 points between 1990 and 1993.
After adjusting for age, education, alcohol consumption, smoking and cognitive functioning at baseline, subjects with maximal 1 h of physical activity per day had a two-fold increased risk of cognitive decline (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 0.9-4.8) as compared with the rest. Risk of cognitive decline was particularly strong in carriers of the APOE*4 allele (adjusted OR 3.7, 95% CI: 1.1-12.6).
The authors conclude that promotion of physical activity at older age may reduce the risk of cognitive decline. The existence of subgroups with a particularly high risk may have important implications for prevention strategies.
SourceAvailable from: May A Beydoun
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ABSTRACT: Physical exercise influences homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations, cognitive function and the metabolic profile. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of regular physical exercise on Hcy levels, the metabolic profile and cognitive function in healthy elderly males before and after an endurance exercise program. Forty-five healthy and sedentary volunteers were randomized into 2 groups: (1) a control group asked not to change their normal everyday activities and not to start any regular physical exercise program and (2) an experimental group trained at a heart rate intensity corresponding to ventilatory threshold 1 (VT-1) for 60 min/day 3 times weekly on alternate days for 6 months using a cycle ergometer. All volunteers underwent cognitive evaluations, blood sample analyses and ergospirometric assessments. A significant improvement in cognitive function was observed in the experimental group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). No significant changes in Hcy levels were observed in the experimental group (p > 0.05), but there was a significant increase in peak oxygen consumption and workload at VT-1 as well as a significant improvement in cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, urea, T3, T4 and prostate-specific antigen compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The data suggest that a physical exercise program does not reduce Hcy levels in healthy elderly males, although it improves the cardiovascular and metabolic profile as well as cognitive function.01/2015; 5(1):13-24. DOI:10.1159/000369160