A modified version of the stop signal task (suitable for use with very young children) was administered to a pre primary school group of children (<5 years, 6 months); a young primary group (5 years, 7 months to 7 years, 6 months); a mid primary group (7 years, 7 months to 9 years, 6 months) and a group of adults. Significant age differences in the ability to inhibit responding were found. These results highlight the need for measures of response inhibition which are appropriate for use with very young children, when the first signs of inhibitory skills are emerging. It is also imperative that such measures allow the assessment of skills across a broad range of age groups in order to comprehensively monitor their development.
"Several classic developmental studies have demonstrated that the ability to suppress irrelevant information becomes more efficient with age (Diamond and Doar, 1989; Durston et al., 2002). As a matter of fact, performance on Stroop, flanker, and go/no-go tasks continues to develop over childhood and does not reach its maximum until 12 years of age or later (Carver et al., 2001; Bunge et al., 2002; Durston et al., 2002). In our study, the children could have more accurately judged the onset of the second event in the ECs compared to the BCs because they were influenced by the presence of the first event, not because they treated the first event as a warning stimulus (warning signal theory: Droit-Volet, 2003, 2011). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intentional binding (IB) refers to the temporal attraction between a voluntary action and its sensory consequence. Since its discovery in 2002, it has been considered to be a valid implicit measure of sense of agency (SoA), since it only occurs in the context of voluntary actions. The vast majority of studies considering IB have recruited young adults as participants, while neglecting possible age-related differences. The aim of the present work is to study the development of IB in 10-year-old children. In place of Libet's classical clock method, we decided to implement a new and more suitable paradigm in order to study IB, since children could have some difficulties in dealing with reading clocks. A stream of unpredictable letters was therefore used: participants had to remember which letter was on the screen when they made a voluntary action, heard a sound, or felt their right index finger moved down passively. In Experiment I, a group of young adults was tested in order to replicate the IB effect with this new paradigm. In Experiment II, the same paradigm was then administered to children in order to investigate whether such an effect has already emerged at this age. The data from Experiment I showed the presence of the IB effect in adults. However, Experiment II demonstrated a clear reduction of IB. The comparison of the two groups revealed that the young adult group differed from the children, showing a significantly stronger linkage between actions and their consequences. The results indicate a developmental trend in the IB effect. This finding is discussed in light of the maturation process of the frontal cortical network.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 08/2014; 8. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00651 · 2.99 Impact Factor
"Improvements over this protracted time period include increases in speed of reaction when inhibiting a response (Bedard et al., 2002; Williams et al., 1999) and decreases in errors when cued to inhibit a prepotent response (Bedard et al., 2002; Carver et al., 2001). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Self-control plays an important role in healthy development and has been shown to be amenable to intervention. This article presents a theoretical framework for the emerging area of "brain-training" interventions that includes both laboratory-based direct training methods and ecologically valid school-, family-, and community-based interventions. Although these approaches have proliferated in recent years, evidence supporting them is just beginning to emerge, and conceptual models underlying many of the techniques they employ tend to be underspecified and imprecise. Identifying the neural systems responsible for improvements in self-control may be of tremendous benefit not only for overall intervention efficacy but also for basic science issues related to underlying shared biological mechanisms of psychopathology. This article reviews the neurodevelopment of self-control and explores its implications for theory, intervention, and prevention. It then presents a neurally informed framework for understanding self-control development and change and discusses how this framework may inform future intervention strategies for individuals suffering with psychopathology or drug abuse/dependence, or for young children with delays in cognitive or emotional functioning.
Child Development Perspectives 12/2012; 6(4):374-384. DOI:10.1111/j.1750-8606.2012.00248.x · 1.56 Impact Factor
"To the extent that P3 latency and P3 peak latency reflect, respectively, perceptual and motor processes, it was suggested that the locus of developmental change was the ability to resist interference at the motor level. Evidence from paradigms involving inhibition of unwanted responses (e.g., Stroop, go/no-go, stop-signal, and response alternation ) also tends to demonstrate that inhibitory processes continue to develop until early adolescence (Bedard et al., 2002; Brocki & Bohlin, 2004; Carver, Livesey, & Charles, 2001; Comalli, Wapner, & Werner, 1962; Johnstone et al., 2007; Levin et al., 1991; Williams, Ponesse, Schachar, Logan, & Tannock, 1999; Wise, Sutton, & Gibbons, 1975), even though inconsistent developmental patterns have been reported (Johnstone et al., 2007; Oosterlaan & Sergeant, 1996; Schachar & Logan, 1990). The dominant picture is that active inhibition seems to reach mastery in early adolescence, around the ages of 10 –12, even though some studies suggest that this might be task dependent, with mastery being reached faster in some tasks than in others (Davidson et al., 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The developmental trajectories of several attention components, such as orienting, inhibition, and the guidance of selection by relevance (i.e., advance knowledge relevant to the task) were investigated in 498 participants (ages 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 20). The paradigm was based on Michael et al.'s (2006) master activation map model and consisted of 3 visual search tasks presented in an intrasubject Latin square design and differing in terms of the probability with which a salient signal was associated with the target or a distractor. The results suggest that, whereas computations of salience were already proficient at age 7, and the use of advance knowledge was efficient throughout childhood, albeit without reaching adult levels, the integration of salience and relevance reached its asymptotic level at age 8. Although moving and engaging attention was proficient at age 7, disengaging attention started to improve at age 9, reaching its adult level at age 11. As regards inhibition of salient distractors, the authors found no developmental pattern before adulthood, regardless of whether advance knowledge was available about the distractor or not, although all participants were able to use such knowledge to reduce overall interference. Finally, some results suggest that the control of resources for strengthening inhibition becomes efficient between ages 9 and 10. The developmental trajectories were compared with the existing literature and discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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