Prostaglandins have complex actions on bone metabolism that depend on interactions with different types and subtypes of receptors. Our objective was to characterize the prostaglandins receptors present in primary cultures of human osteoblasts. RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of DP, EP(4), IP, FP and TP receptor mRNA in primary cultures of human osteoblasts. FP receptor mRNA was detected only after 3 weeks of confluency, all the others were detected at every culture time tested. To verify the functionality of these receptors we challenged the cells with the prostanoids and synthetic analogues and determined the intracellular levels of cAMP. All receptors found by RT-PCR were coupled to second messengers except for the DP subtype. These results clearly show the presence of functional EP(4), IP, FP and TP receptors in human osteoblasts in culture.
"PGE 2 has been demonstrated to exert both anabolic and catabolic effects depending on the activation of its specific receptor subtypes. In osteoblasts, three such receptors, EP1, EP2 and EP4, are present  . PGE 2 signalling through the EP1 receptor enhances pro-anabolic effects such as bone formation, whereas signalling through the EP2 and EP4 receptors induces catabolic effects on bone   . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common human joint disease. Recent studies suggest that an abnormal subchondral bone metabolism is intimately involved in the genesis of this disease. Bone remodelling is tightly regulated by a molecular triad composed of OPG/RANK/RANKL. RANKL exists as 3 isoforms: RANKL1, 2, and 3. RANKL1 and 2 enhance osteoclastogenesis whereas RANKL3 inhibits this phenomenon. We previously reported that human OA subchondral bone osteoblasts can be discriminated into two subgroups according to their level of PGE2 [low (L) or high (H)]. Moreover, we also showed that L-OA osteoblasts express higher levels of total RANKL compared to H-OA osteoblasts. In this study, we investigated the level of membranous RANKL, comparing L- and H-OA subchondral bone osteoblasts, as well as its modulation by osteotropic factors. The impact of the modulation of RANKL1 and 3 on the membranous RANKL level was also studied.
Gene expression was determined using real-time PCR for RANKL1 and semi-quantitative PCR for RANKL3. Membranous RANKL was measured by flow cytometry. The modulation of membranous RANKL and RANKL isoforms was monitored on the L- and H-OA osteoblasts and also following treatment with osteotropic factors, including vitamin D3 (50 nM), IL-1beta (100 pg/ml), TNF-alpha (5 ng/ml), PGE2 (500 nM), PTH (100 nM), IL-6 (10 ng/ml) and IL-17 (10 ng/ml).
Membranous RANKL levels were significantly increased in L-OA osteoblasts compared to normal (p<0.01) and H-OA (p<0.05). The gene expression level of the RANKL1 profile was reminiscent of the membranous RANKL level. Although RANKL3 gene expression was lower on the H-OA osteoblasts than on normal and L-OA osteoblasts (p<0.03), the overall outcome favoured RANKL1. Treatment with the tested factors showed a significant increase in membranous RANKL on the L-OA osteoblasts, with the exception of PTH and IL-17. Interestingly in this subpopulation, the RANKL3 gene expression level was significantly increased upon PTH and IL-17 treatment. No effect of the tested osteotropic factors was found on the H-OA.
Our findings showed that the normal, L- and H-OA subchondral bone osteoblasts differentially express membranous RANKL and RANKL isoforms, and that treatment with osteotropic factors generally favours increased membranous localization of RANKL on L-OA compared to H-OA osteoblasts. This phenomenon appears to take place through differential modulation of each RANKL isoform.
Bone 09/2008; 43(2):284-91. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2008.04.006 · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostacyclin (PGI(2)) is an important mediator implicated in bone metabolism. Among the natural prostaglandins it is the most potent inhibitor of bone resorption and mediates bone modelling and remodelling induced by strain changes. The effects of prostacyclin depend on its interaction with a specific receptor (IP). Despite its well documented effects on bone the localization and distribution of the IP receptor in human bone remain unknown. The present study used specific antipeptide antibodies to IP receptor for immunolocalization of the IP receptor in normal, osteoporotic and Pagetic human adult bone and in human fetal bone. The IP receptor was detected in fetal and adult osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Fetal osteocytes also expressed IP receptor but not adult osteocytes. Interestingly, the expression of IP receptor in adult osteoblasts was gradually lost as these cells were trapped in the matrix and became osteocytes. The IP receptor showed a perinuclear distribution within the cells, but in multinuclear osteoclasts not all nuclei were positive. Our results showed differences in IP receptor expression in fetal and adult human bone and, in adult bone, with the differentiation of osteoblasts into osteocytes. They also showed that there is no difference on the expression of prostacyclin receptors in Pagetic, osteoporotic and normal human bone, and they confirm the presence of the IP receptor in human osteoblasts as had been demonstrated by our previous study with human osteoblasts in culture.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin E(2) has been shown to increase bone mass in animals and humans but it also has considerable dose limiting systemic side effects. The molecular description of multiple seven transmembrane domain G protein coupled prostanoid receptors offered the opportunity to probe the skeletal effects of specific receptors using selective agonists. Bone effects have been reported with many of the prostanoid receptors, with most interest focused on the anabolic effects of EP2, EP4, and FP receptors. Current data suggests activity at the EP2 receptor stimulates formation, activity at the EP4 receptor stimulates resorption (and possibly formation), and activity at the FP receptor produces new trabeculae. However, caution must be exercised in extending the effects of prostanoids in isolated systems to systemic skeletal effects, since tissue level effects are the cumulative result of bone formation and bone resorption. Furthermore, species differences in receptor sequence and density confound extrapolation of effects from one model to another model. While these molecular targets increase our insight into how the skeleton can be affected pharmacologically, they still do not answer questions about the role of naturally occurring prostaglandins in skeletal health. This manuscript will review some of the recent advances in knowledge of the bone anabolic effects of selective prostanoid ligands.
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