Special issues in the treatment of paediatric bipolar disorder.
ABSTRACT Paediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is an increasingly diagnosed disorder affecting an estimated 1% of children and adolescents. Pharmacological treatment studies in PBD have lagged far behind those in adults. Children are currently treated with pharmacological agents, most of which have proven efficacy in adults. However, PBD is distinct from adult forms of bipolar disorder (BD) and may present unique treatment challenges. PBD often presents with rapid cycling and mixed manic states and a high co-morbidity with behavioural and attention disorders. Early onset depression may also be an early sign of PBD. Due to developmental considerations, the diagnosis of BD may be difficult to make in children without semi-structured interviews. This report discusses the special issues that should be considered when treating PBD and reviews the current literature regarding pharmacotherapy of this population. Mood stabilisers have been studied mostly in an open, uncontrolled fashion but there is growing evidence that lithium, divalproex and carbamazepine are effective in treating PBD. More recent treatment options include atypical antipsychotics and newer anticonvulsants. Other novel agents are currently being investigated in adult BD and may prove applicable to the paediatric form. Finally, based on the available data, a treatment algorithm for PBD is proposed.
Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology News 06/2002; 7(3):1-4. DOI:10.1521/capn.22.214.171.12405
Article: Bipolar offspring[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Children of parents with bipolar disorder (bipolar offspring) represent a rich cohort for study with potential for illumination of prodromal forms of bipolar disorder. Due to their high-risk nature, bipolar offspring may present phenomenological, temperamental, and biological clues to early presentations of bipolar disorder. This article reviews the evidence for establishing bipolar offspring as a high-risk cohort, the studies which point to possible prodromal states in bipolar offspring, biological findings in bipolar offspring which may be indicators of even higher risk for bipolar disorder, initial attempts at early intervention in prodromal pediatric bipolar disorder, and implications for future research.Biological Psychiatry 06/2003; 53(11):945-951. DOI:10.1016/S0006-3223(03)00061-1 · 9.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lamotrigine is an anticonvulsant drug indicated for the maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder and for various types of epilepsy. An orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of lamotrigine was developed to provide a formulation option that might increase patient convenience and satisfaction. Subjects with mood disorders who reported difficulty swallowing currently prescribed lamotrigine immediate-release medication (baseline) were enrolled and treated with lamotrigine ODT for three weeks (end of treatment). Subject satisfaction and convenience were measured using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM). Also measured were global psychopathology using the Clinical Global Impression severity index (CGI-S) and depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Lamotrigine ODT was found to be significantly more convenient to use than lamotrigine immediate-release (change in baseline TSQM convenience score: 23.3, n = 97, P < 0.001). The mean TSQM global satisfaction score was similar at baseline (76.3) and after treatment with lamotrigine ODT (76.0). There were no significant changes on CGI-S and BDI-II. Subjects reported that lamotrigine ODT was significantly more convenient than lamotrigine immediate-release, while both formulations were associated with good satisfaction. Lamotrigine ODT may be a treatment option for patients who have difficulty swallowing medication.Patient Preference and Adherence 01/2013; 7:411-417. DOI:10.2147/PPA.S40271 · 1.49 Impact Factor