A fundamental issue in neuronal and glial cells is how intracellular rises in Ca2+ are coupled to signaling cascades and changes in subcellular morphology. We studied the expression and localization of annexin VII (synexin), a Ca(2+)-/GTP-dependent membrane fusion protein, in the human CNS. Here, we demonstrate the presence of two annexin VII isoforms (47 and 51 kDa) in human brain tissue as well as its exclusive expression in astroglial cells. An in vitro study of astrocyte-derived C6 rat glioblastoma cells expressing a GFP tagged annexin VII fusion protein demonstrates a sequential redistribution of the fusion protein in response to rising intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Our findings indicate a role of annexin VII in the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+)-dependent processes in astroglial cells.
"Ras proteins control at least three crucial signaling networks, including anchorage independence, survival, and proliferation protein dysregulated pathways, such as Annexin A7 . Annexin A7 can translocate from the cytoplasm to the cellular membrane in cultured cells after damage, apoptosis, and treatment with Ca2+-ionophore . The 47 kDa isoform of Annexin A7 is expressed in astrocyte-derived C6 rat glioblastoma cells, which is in contrast to human brain tissues . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in China. This study investigated the effects of Annexin A7 (ANXA7) on the inhibition of HCC lymph node metastasis in a mouse model.
The stable knockup and knockdown of Annexin A7-expressing HCC cells using Annexin A7 cDNA and shRNA vectors, respectively, were injected into a mouse footpad to establish primary and metastatic tumors in mice. On the 14th, 21st, and 28th days after HCC cells inoculation, the mice were sacrificed for inspection of primary and secondary tumors and immunohistochemistry of Annexin A7 expression.
The lymph node metastasis rate of the FANXA7-control group was 77%, and the lymph node metastasis rate of the FANXA7-down group was 100% (p < 0.05). In contrast, the lymph node metastasis rate of the PANXA7-up group was 0% and that of the PANXA7-control group was 36% (p < 0.05). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry experiments revealed that the subcellular localization of Annexin A7 protein in both primary and lymph node-metastasized tumors was mainly in the cytosol. In addition, the expression of the 47 kDa and 51 kDa isoforms of Annexin A7 protein changed during tumor progression.
This study indicated that Annexin A7 expression was able to inhibit HCC lymph node metastasis, whereas knockdown of Annexin A7 expression significantly induced HCC metastasis to local lymph nodes.
BMC Cancer 11/2013; 13(1):522. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-13-522 · 3.36 Impact Factor
"Immuno-staining for A7 revealed its presence in the cytoplasmic, nuclear and membrane compartments. Nuclear localization of A7 has been previously reported in astroglial cells by immunostaining and in astrocyte derived C6 rat glioblastoma cells by localization of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-A7 . As observed in our study, this report also demonstrated that calcium ionophore A23187 increased membrane association of GFP-A7. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Membrane fusion between the lamellar bodies and plasma membrane is an obligatory event in the secretion of lung surfactant. Previous studies have postulated a role for annexin A7 (A7) in membrane fusion during exocytosis in some cells including alveolar type II cells. However, the intracellular trafficking of A7 during such fusion is not described. In this study, we investigated association of endogenous A7 with lamellar bodies in alveolar type II cells following treatment with several secretagogues of lung surfactant. Biochemical studies with specific antibodies showed increased membrane-association of cell A7 in type II cells stimulated with agents that increase secretion through different signaling mechanisms. Immuno-fluorescence studies showed increased co-localization of A7 with ABCA3, the lamellar body marker protein. Because these agents increase surfactant secretion through activation of PKC and PKA, we also investigated the effects of PKC and PKA inhibitors, bisindolylmaleimideI (BisI) and H89, respectively, on A7 partitioning. Western blot analysis showed that these inhibitors prevented secretagogue-mediated A7 increase in the membrane fractions. These inhibitors also blocked increased co-localization of A7 with ABCA3 in secretagogue-treated cells, as revealed by immuno-fluorescence studies. In vitro studies with recombinant A7 showed phosphorylation with PKC and PKA. The cell A7 was also phosphorylated in cells treated with surfactant secretagogues. Thus, our studies demonstrate that annexin A7 relocates to lamellar bodies in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We suggest that activation of protein kinase promotes phosphorylation and membrane-association of A7 presumably to facilitate membrane fusion during lung surfactant secretion.
"On the other hand the actual human brain tissue used was from aged patients and did not correspond to the age of the mice included in this study. In cultured cells after cell damage or apoptosis (unpublished observations) or in cells treated with a Ca2+-ionophore Annexin A7 translocated from the cytoplasm to cellular membranes . We therefore favor the hypothesis that Annexin A7 in the sensitive neurons of the human autopsy brain may have similarly translocated to the cellular membrane. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Annexin A7 is a member of the annexin protein family, which is characterized by its ability to interact with phospholipids in the presence of Ca2+-ions and which is thought to function in Ca2+-homeostasis. Results from mutant mice showed altered Ca2+-wave propagation in astrocytes. As the appearance and distribution of Annexin A7 during brain development has not been investigated so far, we focused on the distribution of Annexin A7 protein during mouse embryogenesis in the developing central nervous system and in the adult mouse brain.
Annexin A7 is expressed in cells of the developing brain where a change in its subcellular localization from cytoplasm to nucleus was observed. In the adult CNS, the subcellular distribution of Annexin A7 depends on the cell type. By immunohistochemistry analysis Annexin A7 was detected in the cytosol of undifferentiated cells at embryonic days E5-E8. At E11-E15 the protein is still present in the cytosol of cells predominantly located in the ventricular germinative zone surrounding the lateral ventricle. Later on, at embryonic day E16, Annexin A7 in cells of the intermediate and marginal zone of the neopallium translocates to the nucleus. Neuronal cells of all areas in the adult brain present Annexin A7 in the nucleus, whereas glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes exhibit both, a cytoplasmic and nuclear staining. The presence of nuclear Annexin A7 was confirmed by extraction of the nucleoplasm from isolated nuclei obtained from neuronal and astroglial cell lines.
We have demonstrated a translocation of Annexin A7 to nuclei of cells in early murine brain development and the presence of Annexin A7 in nuclei of neuronal cells in the adult animal. The role of Annexin A7 in nuclei of differentiating and mature neuronal cells remains elusive.
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