Effect of creatine supplementation on creatine and glycogen content in rat skeletal muscle.
ABSTRACT The effects of high dose creatine feeding (5 g kg(-1) BW day(-1), 5 days) on creatine content, glucose transport, and glycogen accumulation in white gastrocnemius, red gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of the rat was investigated. Isolated rat hindquarters of creatine fed and control rats were perfused with a standard medium containing either insulin alone (0, 100 or 20 000 microU mL(-1)) or in combination with creatine (2 or 10 mmol L(-1)). Furthermore, plasma insulin concentration was measured in normal rats during creatine feeding, as well as in anaesthetized rats during intravenous creatine infusion. Five days of creatine feeding increased (P < 0.05) total creatine content in soleus (+ 20%) but not in red gastrocnemius (+15%, n.s.) and white gastrocnemius (+ 10%, n.s.). In parallel, glycogen content was markedly elevated (P < 0.05) in soleus (+ 40%), less (P < 0.05) in red gastrocnemius (+ 15%), and not in white gastrocnemius (+ 10%, n.s.). Glucose transport rate, muscle GLUT-4 content, glycogen synthase activity in perfused muscles and glycogen synthesis rate were not significantly altered by creatine feeding in either muscle type. Furthermore, high dose creatine feeding raised (P < 0.05) plasma creatine concentration fivefold but did not alter circulating insulin level. It is concluded that short-term high dose creatine feeding enhances creatine disposal and glycogen storage in rat skeletal muscle. However, the creatine and glycogen response to creatine supplementation is markedly greater in oxidative than in glycolytic muscles.
Article: Deleteriuos effects of immobilization upon rat skeletal muscle: role of creatine supplementation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of creatine feeding (5 g kg(-1) body weight day(-1)) upon the deleterious adaptations in skeletal muscle induced by immobilization. Male Wistar rats were submitted to hind limb immobilization together with three dietary manipulations: control, supplemented with creatine for 7 days (along with immobilization) and supplemented with creatine for 14 days (7 days before immobilization and together with immobilization). Muscle weight (wet/dry) was determined in the soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemius (GAS). The analysis of lean mass was performed by DEXA and myosin heavy chain (MHC) distribution by SDS-PAGE. After 14 days of creatine loading, immobilized SOL and GAS total creatine content were increased by 25% and 18%, respectively. Regardless of dietary manipulation, the immobilization protocol induced a decrease in the weight of SOL and GAS (P < 0.001). However, creatine feeding for 14 days minimized mass loss in the SOL and GAS (P < 0.05). Our findings also indicate that creatine supplementation maximizes the expected slow-to-fast MHC shift driven by immobilization (P < 0.05). Previous creatine supplementation attenuates muscle wasting induced by immobilization. This effect is associated with the increment of intramuscular creatine content.Clinical Nutrition 11/2004; 23(5):1176-83. · 3.73 Impact Factor
Article: The effects of a pre-workout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, and amino acids during three weeks of high-intensity exercise on aerobic and anaerobic performance.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel design study was used to examine the effects of a pre-workout supplement combined with three weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on aerobic and anaerobic running performance, training volume, and body composition. Twenty-four moderately-trained recreational athletes (mean +/- SD age = 21.1 +/- 1.9 yrs; stature = 172.2 +/- 8.7 cm; body mass = 66.2 +/- 11.8 kg, VO2max = 3.21 +/- 0.85 l.min-1, percent body fat = 19.0 +/- 7.1%) were assigned to either the active supplement (GT, n = 13) or placebo (PL, n = 11) group. The active supplement (Game Time(R), Corr-Jensen Laboratories Inc., Aurora, CO) was 18 g of powder, 40 kcals, and consisted of a proprietary blend including whey protein, cordyceps sinensis, creatine, citrulline, ginseng, and caffeine. The PL was also 18 g of powder, 40 kcals, and consisted of only maltodextrin, natural and artificial flavors and colors. Thirty minutes prior to all testing and training sessions, participants consumed their respective supplements mixed with 8-10 oz of water. Both groups participated in a three-week HIIT program three days per week, and testing was conducted before and after the training. Cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) was assessed using open circuit spirometry (Parvo-Medics TrueOne(R) 2400 Metabolic Measurement System, Sandy, UT) during graded exercise tests on a treadmill (Woodway, Pro Series, Waukesha, WI). Also, four high-speed runs to exhaustion were conducted at 110, 105, 100, and 90% of the treadmill velocity recorded during VO2max, and the distances achieved were plotted over the times-to-exhaustion. Linear regression was used to determine the slopes (critical velocity, CV) and y-intercepts (anaerobic running capacity, ARC) of these relationships to assess aerobic and anaerobic performances, respectively. Training volumes were tracked by summing the distances achieved during each training session for each subject. Percent body fat (%BF) and lean body mass (LBM) were assessed with air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD(R), Life Measurement, Inc., Concord, CA). Both GT and PL groups demonstrated a significant (p = 0.028) increase in VO2max from pre- to post-training resulting in a 10.3% and 2.9% improvement, respectively. CV increased (p = 0.036) for the GT group by 2.9%, while the PL group did not change (p = 0.256; 1.7% increase). ARC increased for the PL group by 22.9% and for the GT group by 10.6%. Training volume was 11.6% higher for the GT versus PL group (p = 0.041). %BF decreased from 19.3% to 16.1% for the GT group and decreased from 18.0% to 16.8% in the PL group (p = 0.178). LBM increased from 54.2 kg to 55.4 kg (p = 0.035) for the GT group and decreased from 52.9 kg to 52.4 kg in the PL group (p = 0.694). These results demonstrated improvements in VO2max, CV, and LBM when GT is combined with HIIT. Three weeks of HIIT alone also augmented anaerobic running performance, VO2max and body composition.Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 02/2010; 7:10. · 1.64 Impact Factor
Article: Creatine supplementation spares muscle glycogen during high intensity intermittent exercise in rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The effects of creatine (CR) supplementation on glycogen content are still debatable. Thus, due to the current lack of clarity, we investigated the effects of CR supplementation on muscle glycogen content after high intensity intermittent exercise in rats. First, the animals were submitted to a high intensity intermittent maximal swimming exercise protocol to ensure that CR-supplementation was able to delay fatigue (experiment 1). Then, the CR-mediated glycogen sparing effect was examined using a high intensity intermittent sub-maximal exercise test (fixed number of bouts; six bouts of 30-second duration interspersed by two-minute rest interval) (experiment 2). For both experiments, male Wistar rats were given either CR supplementation or placebo (Pl) for 5 days. As expected, CR-supplemented animals were able to exercise for a significant higher number of bouts than Pl. Experiment 2 revealed a higher gastrocnemius glycogen content for the CR vs. the Pl group (33.59%). Additionally, CR animals presented lower blood lactate concentrations throughout the intermittent exercise bouts compared to Pl. No difference was found between groups in soleus glycogen content. The major finding of this study is that CR supplementation was able to spare muscle glycogen during a high intensity intermittent exercise in rats.Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 01/2010; 7(1):6. · 1.64 Impact Factor