Effect of creatine supplementation on creatine and glycogen content in rat skeletal muscle.
ABSTRACT The effects of high dose creatine feeding (5 g kg(-1) BW day(-1), 5 days) on creatine content, glucose transport, and glycogen accumulation in white gastrocnemius, red gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of the rat was investigated. Isolated rat hindquarters of creatine fed and control rats were perfused with a standard medium containing either insulin alone (0, 100 or 20 000 microU mL(-1)) or in combination with creatine (2 or 10 mmol L(-1)). Furthermore, plasma insulin concentration was measured in normal rats during creatine feeding, as well as in anaesthetized rats during intravenous creatine infusion. Five days of creatine feeding increased (P < 0.05) total creatine content in soleus (+ 20%) but not in red gastrocnemius (+15%, n.s.) and white gastrocnemius (+ 10%, n.s.). In parallel, glycogen content was markedly elevated (P < 0.05) in soleus (+ 40%), less (P < 0.05) in red gastrocnemius (+ 15%), and not in white gastrocnemius (+ 10%, n.s.). Glucose transport rate, muscle GLUT-4 content, glycogen synthase activity in perfused muscles and glycogen synthesis rate were not significantly altered by creatine feeding in either muscle type. Furthermore, high dose creatine feeding raised (P < 0.05) plasma creatine concentration fivefold but did not alter circulating insulin level. It is concluded that short-term high dose creatine feeding enhances creatine disposal and glycogen storage in rat skeletal muscle. However, the creatine and glycogen response to creatine supplementation is markedly greater in oxidative than in glycolytic muscles.
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ABSTRACT: The effect of short-term creatine (Cr) supplementation upon content of skeletal muscle-derived-reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated. Wistar rats were supplemented with Cr (5 g/kg BW) or vehicle, by gavage, for 6 days. Soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were removed and incubated for evaluation of ROS content using Amplex-UltraRed reagent. The analysis of expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase 1 and 2, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) were performed. Direct scavenger action of Cr on superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide was also investigated. Short-term Cr supplementation attenuated ROS content in both soleus and EDL muscles (by 41 and 33.7%, respectively). Cr supplementation did not change expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes. Basal TBARS content was not altered by Cr supplementation. In cell-free experiments, Cr showed a scavenger effect on superoxide radical in concentrations of 20 and 40 mM, but not on hydrogen peroxide. These results indicate that Cr supplementation decreases ROS content in skeletal muscle possibly due to a direct action of Cr molecule on superoxide radical.Arbeitsphysiologie 03/2012; 112(11):3905-11. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is a current lack of clarity regarding the use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to evaluate intramuscular concentrations of creatine (Cr). Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the FT-IR spectral features of tibialis anterior muscle in rats submitted in conditions that were expected to perturb the Cr pool. First, an experiment was performed to ensure that FT-IR was able to detect the Cr intramuscular in sedentary and supplemented rats (Experiment 1). The effect of physical exercise on spectral muscle features was then examined, especially in relation to the spectroscopy markers (Experiment 2). Using pure Cr (control), it was possible to verify that only the peaks centered at 1308 and 1396 cm(-1) of all the spectra showed the same peak positions, indicating these FT-IR shifts as indirect markers of Cr intramuscular content. Experiment 2 revealed a higher Cr content for the Cr-supplemented and exercised animals than the rats of other groups. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that FT-IR spectroscopy using 1396 cm(-1) and mainly 1308 band was able to monitor Cr muscle content in rats sedentary, Cr-supplemented, and submitted to physical training. Besides, FT-IR could be a feasible method for the nondestructive assessment of Cr skeletal muscle content.Annals of Biomedical Engineering 03/2012; 40(9):2069-77. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of dietary creatine supplementation alone and in combination with exercise on basal cardiac function, susceptibility to ischaemia/reperfusion injury and mitochondrial oxidative function. There has been an increase in the use of creatine supplementation among sports enthusiasts, and by clinicians as a therapeutic agent in muscular and neurological diseases. The effects of creatine have been studied extensively in skeletal muscle, but not in the myocardium. Male Wistar rats were swim-trained for 8 weeks, 5 days per week. Hearts were excised and either freeze-clamped for biochemical analysis or perfused on the isolated heart perfusion system to assess function and ischaemia/reperfusion tolerance. Mechanical function was documented in working heart and retrograde mode. The left coronary artery was ligated and infarct size determined. Mitochondrial oxidative capacity was quantified. Aortic output recovery of hearts from the sedentary controls (CSed) was significantly higher than those from creatine-supplemented sedentary (CrSed), creatine-supplemented exercised (CrEx) as well as control exercised (CEx) groups. Ischaemic contracture of hearts from CrEx was significantly higher than that of CSed. There were no differences in infarct size and mitochondrial oxygen consumption. This study suggests that creatine supplementation has no effects on basal cardiac function but reduces myocardial tolerance to ischaemia in hearts from exercise-trained animals, by increasing the ischaemic contracture and decreasing reperfusion aortic output. Exercise training alone also significantly decreased aortic output recovery. However, the exact mechanisms for these adverse myocardial effects are unknown and need further investigation.Acta Physiologica 06/2012; 206(1):6-19. · 4.38 Impact Factor