CGH alterations in medullary thyroid carcinomas in relation to the RET M918T mutation and clinical outcome.
ABSTRACT Apart from the RET proto-oncogene (RET) no other genes have been found to be involved in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) tumorigenesis. Germline RET mutations are seen virtually in all familial forms of MTC and somatic RET mutations are often detected in sporadic MTC. In sporadic MTCs the RET gene is mutated in codon 918, where a methionine is substituted to a threonine (M918T). In this study 24 MTCs were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) for chromosomal imbalances. Overall, alterations were detected in approximately 60% of the samples. The most common aberrations were gains on chromosome 19q (29%), 19p (21%), 11c-q12 (12.5%), and 22q (12.5%) and losses on 13q21 (21%) and 3q23-qter (12.5%). Gain of chromosome 11c-q12 was only detected in samples from patients whom died of MTC (p=0.001). These MTCs also harbored the somatic RET M918T mutation and also showed the highest numbers of CGH alterations in the series (p<0.003). Although there was a tendency towards a higher number of CGH imbalances in the tumors with RET M918T mutation, this difference was not significant. The results indicate that MTC is a comparatively genetically stable tumor, and that chromosomal regions 19q, 19p, 13q and 11q may be involved in MTC carcinogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: Genetic alterations in human cancers and murine models indicate that retinoblastoma (Rb) and p53 have critical tumor suppressive functions in retinoblastoma, a tumor of neural origin, and neuroendocrine tumors including small cell lung cancer and medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Rb inactivation is the initiating lesion in retinoblastoma and current models propose that induction of apoptosis is a key p53 tumor suppressive function. Genetic studies in mice, however, indicate that other undefined p53 tumor suppressive functions are operative in vivo. How p53 loss cooperates with Rb inactivation to promote carcinogenesis is also not fully understood. In the current study, genetically engineered mice were generated to determine the role of Rb and p53 in MTC pathogenesis and test the hypothesis that p53 suppresses carcinogenesis by inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Conditional Rb ablation resulted in thyroid tumors mimicking human MTC, and additional p53 loss led to rapid tumor progression. p53 suppressed tumorigenesis by inhibiting cell cycle progression, but did not induce apoptosis. On the contrary, p53 loss led to increased apoptosis that had to be overcome for tumor progression. The mTOR activity was markedly increased in p53-deficient tumors and rapamycin treatment suppressed tumor cell growth, identifying mTOR inhibition as a critical p53 tumor suppressive function. Rapamycin treatment did not result in AKT/mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, providing evidence that this feedback mechanism operative in other cancers is not a general response to mTORC1 inhibition. Together, these studies provide mechanistic links between genetic alterations and aberrant signaling pathways critical in carcinogenesis, and identify essential Rb and p53 tumor suppressive functions in vivo.Oncogene advance online publication, 27 January 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.589.Oncogene 01/2014; · 8.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The association of RET and GFRA1 polymorphisms with a predisposition to sporadic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and their effects on the clinical features of hereditary and sporadic MTC were studied in 67 MTC patients (22 hereditary and 45 sporadic), 3 asymptomatic carriers of mutant RET, and 178 healthy control residents of Russia. RET exons 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, and 16 and intron 1 along with the GFRA1 5′-UTR were screened by PCR and subsequent direct sequencing or RFLP analysis. Eight polymorphic variants of RET (exons 11, 13, 14, and 15 and introns 1, 8, 13, and 14) and four GFRA1 polymorphisms were detected. Linkage disequilibrium was found between RET variants G691S and S904S, L769L and IVS8, and S836S and IVS13. In sporadic MTC the allele frequency of only one polymorphic RET variant, L769L, was significantly lower than in the control group. In hereditary MTC a significant overrepresentation of the S836S and underrepresentation of the S904S polymorphic variants were observed as compared to groups with sporadic MTC and the controls. Cosegregation was not found between individual polymorphisms and the phenotype of sporadic MTC. In patients with hereditary MTC whose genotype had the polymorphic L769L and the wild-type S836S variants, the disease manifested 20 years later, on average, than in individuals with polymorphic L769L and S836S or with wild-type L769L (P = 0.01). The results suggest a protective role of the L769L polymorphism in sporadic MTC and a modulating effect of the combination polymorphic L769L with wild-type S836S on the clinical outcome of hereditary MTC.Molecular Biology 01/2006; 40(3):375-384. · 0.64 Impact Factor