The management of ductal carcinoma

Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1441 Eastlake Avenue MS74, Los Angeles, California 900033, USA.
Endocrine Related Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.81). 04/2001; 8(1):33-45. DOI: 10.1677/erc.0.0080033
Source: PubMed


Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is a heterogeneous group of lesions with diverse malignant potential. It is the most rapidly growing subgroup within the breast cancer family with more than 42 000 new cases diagnosed in the United States during 2000. Most new cases are nonpalpable and are discovered mammographically. Treatment is controversial and ranges from excision only, to excision with radiation therapy, to mastectomy. Prospective randomized trials reveal an approximate 50% reduction in local recurrence rate overall with the addition of radiation therapy to excisional surgery, but the published prospective data do not allow the selection of subgroups in whom the benefit from radiation therapy is so small that its risks outweigh its benefits. Nonrandomized single facility series suggest that age, family history, nuclear grade, comedo-type necrosis, tumor size and margin width are all important factors in predicting local recurrence and that one or more of these factors could be used to select subgroups of patients who do not benefit sufficiently from radiation therapy to merit its use. When all patients with ductal carcinoma in situ are considered, the overall mortality from breast cancer is extremely low, only about 1-2%. When conservative treatment fails, approximately 50% of all local recurrences are invasive breast cancer. In spite of this, the mortality rate following invasive local recurrence is relatively low, about 12% with eight years of actuarial follow-up. Genetic changes routinely precede morphological evidence of malignant transformation. Lessons learned from ongoing basic science research will help us to identify those DCIS lesions that are unlikely to progress and to prevent progression in the rest.

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    • "In addition to the conventional steroid hormone receptors and cell proliferation markers, the role of several other biomolecular markers involved in the transition from in situ to invasive cancer has been investigated, for example, p27, microvessel density (MVD), and c-kit expression [1]. Genomic studies have recently demonstrated that gene expression profiles are similar in in situ and in invasive cancers [2] [3] [4], suggesting that numerous biofunctional modifications of the breast cancer transformation process arise before or during the development of an in situ lesion. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Genomic studies have shown that gene expression profiles are similar in in situ (CIS) and invasive breast cancers, suggesting that several biofunctional modifications of the transformation process occur before or during the development of CIS lesion. Methods: We investigated 3 biomarkers in 44 patients with CIS: TG2 (transglutaminase 2), HJURP (Holliday junction recognition protein), and HIF-1α (hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha). Results: TG2 was more highly expressed than the other two markers and significantly more so in stromal than in tumor cells. HIF-1α evaluation showed a higher expression in both tumor and stromal cells in patients with relapsed G3 tumors, indicating a potential role of this marker in CIS evolution. A greater than sevenfold higher risk of relapse (P = 0.050) was observed in patients highly expressing HJURP in stroma and a tenfold higher recurrence risk (P = 0.026) was seen in those with a higher stromal HIF-1α expression. An important increase in risk accuracy (AUC 0.80) was obtained when HIF-1α and HJURP were evaluated together. Conclusions: Despite the limited number of relapsed patients, we formulated some hypotheses on the factors responsible for malignant evolution and recurrence which are now being tested in a large case series with a longer follow-up.
    BioMed Research International 08/2014; 2014:159765. DOI:10.1155/2014/159765 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    • "Lesions in this stage are also referred to as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) (8). DCIS is generally categorized into the five most common architectural subtypes, including papillary, micropapillary, cribriform solid, and comedo (9). Stages I to III are characterized by lesions within the breast or regional lymph nodes; these stages are based on the size of the tumor and the spread to the lymph nodes (10). "
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide and is classified into ductal and lobular carcinoma. Breast cancer as well as lobular carcinoma is associated with various risk factors such as gender, age, female hormone exposure, ethnicity, family history and genetic risk factor-associated genes. Genes associated with a high risk of developing breast cancer include BRCA1, BRCA2, p53, PTEN, CHEK2 and ATM. Surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapy are used to treat breast cancer but these therapies, except for surgery, have many side-effects such as alopecia, anesthesia, diarrhea and arthralgia. Gene-directed enzyme/prodrug therapy (GEPT) or suicide gene therapy, may improve the therapeutic efficacy of conventional cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy without side-effects. GEPT most often involves the use of a viral vector to deliver a gene not found in mammalian cells and that produces enzymes which can convert a relatively non-toxic prodrug into a toxic agent. Examples of these systems include cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine (CD/5-FC), carboxyl esterase/irinotecan (CE/CPT-11), and thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (TK/GCV). Recently, therapies based on genetically engineered stem cells (GESTECs) using a GEPT system have received a great deal of attention for their clinical and therapeutic potential to treat breast cancer. In this review, we discuss the potential of GESTECs via tumor tropism effects and therapeutic efficacy against several different types of cancer cells. GESTECs represent a useful tool for treating breast cancer without inducing injuries associated with conventional therapeutic modalities.
    International Journal of Oncology 06/2012; 41(3):798-804. DOI:10.3892/ijo.2012.1523 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Noninvasive mammary intraepithelial lesions (IELs) in humans are detected with increasing frequency because of routine mammographic screening. The presence of IELs may herald increased risk of developing invasive breast carcinoma in women. An animal model is needed to study breast cancer and spontaneous IELS. This study describes the histologic and immunohistochemical similarity between human and canine IELs.
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