The management of ductal carcinoma

Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1441 Eastlake Avenue MS74, Los Angeles, California 900033, USA.
Endocrine Related Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.91). 04/2001; 8(1):33-45. DOI: 10.1677/erc.0.0080033
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is a heterogeneous group of lesions with diverse malignant potential. It is the most rapidly growing subgroup within the breast cancer family with more than 42 000 new cases diagnosed in the United States during 2000. Most new cases are nonpalpable and are discovered mammographically. Treatment is controversial and ranges from excision only, to excision with radiation therapy, to mastectomy. Prospective randomized trials reveal an approximate 50% reduction in local recurrence rate overall with the addition of radiation therapy to excisional surgery, but the published prospective data do not allow the selection of subgroups in whom the benefit from radiation therapy is so small that its risks outweigh its benefits. Nonrandomized single facility series suggest that age, family history, nuclear grade, comedo-type necrosis, tumor size and margin width are all important factors in predicting local recurrence and that one or more of these factors could be used to select subgroups of patients who do not benefit sufficiently from radiation therapy to merit its use. When all patients with ductal carcinoma in situ are considered, the overall mortality from breast cancer is extremely low, only about 1-2%. When conservative treatment fails, approximately 50% of all local recurrences are invasive breast cancer. In spite of this, the mortality rate following invasive local recurrence is relatively low, about 12% with eight years of actuarial follow-up. Genetic changes routinely precede morphological evidence of malignant transformation. Lessons learned from ongoing basic science research will help us to identify those DCIS lesions that are unlikely to progress and to prevent progression in the rest.

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Available from: Melvin J Silverstein, Aug 24, 2015
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    • "In addition to the conventional steroid hormone receptors and cell proliferation markers, the role of several other biomolecular markers involved in the transition from in situ to invasive cancer has been investigated, for example, p27, microvessel density (MVD), and c-kit expression [1]. Genomic studies have recently demonstrated that gene expression profiles are similar in in situ and in invasive cancers [2] [3] [4], suggesting that numerous biofunctional modifications of the breast cancer transformation process arise before or during the development of an in situ lesion. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Genomic studies have shown that gene expression profiles are similar in in situ (CIS) and invasive breast cancers, suggesting that several biofunctional modifications of the transformation process occur before or during the development of CIS lesion. Methods. We investigated 3 biomarkers in 44 patients with CIS: TG2 (transglutaminase 2), HJURP (Holliday junction recognition protein), and HIF-1α (hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha). Results. TG2 was more highly expressed than the other two markers and significantly more so in stromal than in tumor cells. HIF-1α evaluation showed a higher expression in both tumor and stromal cells in patients with relapsed G3 tumors, indicating a potential role of this marker in CIS evolution. A greater than sevenfold higher risk of relapse (P = 0.050) was observed in patients highly expressing HJURP in stroma and a tenfold higher recurrence risk (P = 0.026) was seen in those with a higher stromal HIF-1α expression. An important increase in risk accuracy (AUC 0.80) was obtained when HIF-1α and HJURP were evaluated together. Conclusions. Despite the limited number of relapsed patients, we formulated some hypotheses on the factors responsible for malignant evolution and recurrence which are now being tested in a large case series with a longer follow-up.
    BioMed Research International 08/2014; 2014:159765. DOI:10.1155/2014/159765 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Noninvasive mammary intraepithelial lesions (IELs) in humans are detected with increasing frequency because of routine mammographic screening. The presence of IELs may herald increased risk of developing invasive breast carcinoma in women. An animal model is needed to study breast cancer and spontaneous IELS. This study describes the histologic and immunohistochemical similarity between human and canine IELs.
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    ABSTRACT: This article illustrates the most common benign and malignant lesions in the breast, and is intended for the biologist working in the area of breast cancer and breast biology, not for the practicing pathologist. The atlas covers benign proliferative lesions, atypical lesions, variants of in situ cancer, the main types of invasive cancers, spindle cell lesions, and examples of vascular and lymphatic spread. Some entities are included to illustrate a point of particular relevance to the biology and histogenesis of the lesions. Some controversial diagnostic areas are considered, along with the relative risk of developing breast cancer associated with some of the proliferative lesions. The content of this atlas should be read in conjunction with the companion article by Howard and Gusterson in this issue. Their article covers the cellular origin of epithelial and stromal tumors and presents a description of some of the common benign proliferative lesions that are considered to be components of the normal spectrum of changes seen at postmortem or in biopsies.
    Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 05/2000; 5(2):139-63. DOI:10.1023/A:1026439204849 · 5.00 Impact Factor
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