Role of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in acetaldehyde-induced disruption of epithelial tight junctions.
ABSTRACT Acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity is an important factor in pathogenesis of alcohol-related diseases; however, the mechanism of this toxicity is unknown. We recently showed that acetaldehyde increases epithelial paracellular permeability. We asked whether protein tyrosine phosphorylation via modulation of tyrosine kinases and/or PTPases is a mechanism involved in acetaldehyde-induced disruption of the tight junctions in the Caco-2 cell monolayer. Immunofluorescence localization of occludin and ZO-1 showed disruption of the tight junctions in acetaldehyde-treated cell monolayer. Administration of genistein prevented acetaldehyde-induced permeability. Acetaldehyde increased tyrosine phosphorylation of three clusters of proteins with molecular masses of 30-50, 60-90, and 110-150 kDa; three of these proteins were ZO-1, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin. Acetaldehyde reduced PTPase activity in plasma membrane and soluble fractions, whereas tyrosine kinase activity remained unaffected. Treatment with acetaldehyde resulted in a 97% loss of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)1B activity and a partial reduction of PTP1C and PTP1D activities. These results strongly suggest that acetaldehyde inhibits PTPases to increase protein tyrosine phosphorylation, which may result in disruption of the tight junctions.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic abuse of alcohol leads to various histological abnormalities in the liver. These are conditions collectively known as alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Currently, ALD is considered to be one of the major causes of death worldwide. An impaired intestinal barrier with related endotoxemia is among the various pathogenetic factors. This is mainly characterized by circulating levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), considered critical for the onset of intra-hepatic inflammation. This in turn promotes hepatocellular damage and fibrosis in ALD. Elevated levels of LPS exert their effects by binding to Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are expressed by all liver-resident cells. The activation of TLR signaling triggers an overproduction and release of some cytokines, which promote an autocatalytic cascade of other pro-inflammatory signals. In this review, we provide an overview of the mechanisms that sustain LPS-mediated activation of TLR signaling, reporting current experimental and clinical evidence of its role during inflammation in ALD.
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ABSTRACT: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the commonest cause of cirrhosis in many Western countries and it has a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis is characterized by complex interactions between metabolic intermediates of alcohol. Bacterial intestinal flora is itself responsible for production of endogenous ethanol through the fermentation of carbohydrates. The intestinal metabolism of alcohol produces a high concentration of toxic acetaldehyde that modifies gut permeability and microbiota equilibrium. Furthermore it causes direct hepatocyte damage. In patients who consume alcohol over a long period, there is a modification of gut microbiota and, in particular, an increment of Gram negative bacteria. This causes endotoxemia and hyperactivation of the immune system. Endotoxin is a constituent of Gram negative bacteria cell walls. Two types of receptors, cluster of differentiation 14 and Toll-like receptors-4, present on Kupffer cells, recognize endotoxins. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of gut-liver axis and new treatments have been studied in recent years to reduce progression of ALD modifying gut microbiota. It has focused attention on antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics.
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ABSTRACT: Epithelial tight junctions (TJs) are the key structures regulating paracellular trafficking of macromolecules. The TJ is multi-protein complex that forms a selective permeable seal between adjacent epithelial cells and demarcates the boundary between apical and basolateral membrane domains. Disruption of the intestinal TJ barrier, followed by permeation of luminal noxious molecules, induces a perturbation of the mucosal immune system and inflammation, which can act as a trigger for the development of intestinal and systemic diseases. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients demonstrate increased intestinal paracellular permeability. Although it remains unclear whether barrier dysfunction precedes disease or results from active inflammation, increased intestinal TJ disruption is observed in IBD patients suggest that dysregulation of TJ barrier integrity may predispose or enhance IBD progression. Therefore, therapeutic target to restore the TJ barrier integrity may provide effective therapeutic and preventive approaches against IBD. This review discusses the molecular structure and regulation of intestinal TJs and the involvement of intestinal TJs in IBD pathogenesis.