The role of autocrine growth factors in radiation damage to the epiphyseal growth plate.
ABSTRACT Radiation therapy plays an important role as part of the multimodality treatment for a number of childhood malignancies. Dose-limiting complications of radiotherapy include skeletal abnormalities and disturbances in skeletal development within the irradiated field. The current study was undertaken to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in radiation-induced arrest of bone growth. Our hypotheses were: (1) Expression of autocrine growth factors that regulate chondrocyte proliferation is inhibited by radiation in a specific pattern; (2) the disparity in radiosensitivity of growth plate chondrocytes and epiphyseal chondrocytes is due to differential modulation of autocrine growth factor expression by radiation. Given the important role these cells play in skeletal growth and development, we examined the comparative effects of radiation on expression of specific mitogenic growth factors in growth plate chondrocytes. The effect of radiation on the expression of autocrine/paracrine growth factors was examined in an established avian model of epiphyseal growth plate maturation. Exposure of growth plate chondrocytes to radiation resulted in a specific pattern of biochemical and morphological alterations that were dependent on dose and were progressive over time. While radiation did not affect the mRNA expression of some of the autocrine and paracrine factors important in endochondral ossification (such as FGF2 and TGFB isoforms), it did lead to a decrease in the mRNA expression of PTHrP, a critically important mitogen in growth plate chondrocytes, and a dose-dependent decrease in the PTH/PTHrP receptor mRNA. Interestingly, PTHrP mRNA levels were not affected in irradiated epiphyseal chondrocytes, the main source of PTHrP. Given evidence indicating a role for intracellular calcium levels in regulating PTHrP expression, basal calcium levels in irradiated growth plate chondrocytes and epiphyseal chondrocytes were examined 24 h after treatment. While cytosolic calcium levels were significantly higher in irradiated growth plate chondrocytes, they were not significantly affected in irradiated epiphyseal chondrocytes. The importance of calcium in mediating radiation damage to growth plate chondrocytes was further demonstrated by the finding that the addition of 4.0 mM EGTA (a calcium chelator) to the cell cultures before irradiation prevented the decrease in PTHrP mRNA levels. Since PTHrP up-regulates BCL2 levels and prevents growth plate chondrocyte maturation and apoptosis, BCL2 mRNA levels were examined in irradiated growth plate chondrocytes, and a dose-dependent decrease was found. An increase in apoptosis was further confirmed by a fivefold increase in caspase 3 levels in irradiated growth plate chondrocytes. The results of the current study suggest that radiation may interfere with proliferation of growth plate chondrocytes in part by causing an increase in cytosolic calcium levels which in turn leads to a decrease in PTHrP mRNA. Growth plate chondrocyte PTHrP receptor mRNA expression is also inhibited by radiation, further decreasing PTHrP signaling. Despite subtle differences between the chick and mammalian growth plates, further studies should provide an enhanced understanding of the mechanism(s) of radiation injury to the growth plate, as well as possibilities for new therapeutic strategies to protect the growing skeleton from the detrimental effects of radiotherapy.
SourceAvailable from: Francisco Forriol[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction Bone growth requires intense anabolic activity centering mainly on protein synthesis. Any disturbance affecting cell multiplication and differentiation, collagen synthesis, or proteoglycan formation can produce a pathologic disorder. Literature review The literature on the growth cartilage has been reviewed in depth. Conclusions Hormones act in different ways on skeletal development, changing the thickness of the growth cartilage and the index and magnitude of growth. Local factors act in and around the growth cartilage, together with systemic factors (growth hormone, thyroid hormone, estrogens and androgens, glucocorticoids and vitamin D) that influence growth cartilage function. In addition, modifications in mechanical factors can produce important disturbances in the magnitude and direction of growth.Revista de Ortopedia y Traumatología 02/2005; 49(1). DOI:10.1016/S0482-5985(05)74383-2
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ABSTRACT: Radiation-induced complications in bone and cartilage are of increasing concern due to potential long-term effects in cancer survivors. Healthy articular cartilage may be exposed to radiation during either chondrosarcoma treatment or in-field radiotherapy of tumors located in close proximity to articulation. Cartilage exposed to radiation undergoes bone differentiation and senescence, which can lead to painful and disabling sequelae that can impair patient quality of life. An understanding of the biological processes involved in healthy cartilage response to radiotherapy may not only optimize the delivery of therapeutic radiation but also reduce the risk of long-term sequelae in irradiated cartilage. Over the last few decades, radiobiology studies have focused primarily on signaling and repair of DNA damage pathways induced by ionizing radiation in immortalized cells under conditions dramatically different from human homeostasis. This research needs to be continued and broadened, since the range of normal tissue responses to radiation exposure is still not fully understood, despite being recognized as the major limiting factor in the rupture of tissue homeostasis after radiotherapy. Human articular cartilage is an avascular tissue with low intracellular oxygen levels and is comprised of a single cell lineage of chondrocytes embedded in a highly dense and structured extracellular matrix. These relatively unique features may impact inherent cell radiation sensitivity and suggests that canonical cell responses to ionizing radiation may not be applicable to articular cartilage. Despite the number of studies in this field, radiation-induced modifications of chondrocyte proteome remain unclear because of the dramatic variability in reported experimental conditions. In this review, we propose to introduce cartilage tissue physiology and microenvironment concepts, and then present a comprehensive synthesis of cartilage radiation biology.Radiation Research 01/2015; DOI:10.1667/RR13928.1 · 2.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The advancement and intensive use of chemotherapy in treating childhood cancers has led to a growing population of young cancer survivors who face increased bone health risks. However, the underlying mechanisms for chemotherapy-induced skeletal defects remain largely unclear. Methotrexate (MTX), the most commonly used antimetabolite in paediatric cancer treatment, is known to cause bone growth defects in children undergoing chemotherapy. Animal studies not only have confirmed the clinical observations but also have increased our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chemotherapy-induced skeletal damage. These models revealed that high-dose MTX can cause growth plate dysfunction, damage osteoprogenitor cells, suppress bone formation, and increase bone resorption and marrow adipogenesis, resulting in overall bone loss. While recent rat studies have shown that antidote folinic acid can reduce MTX damage in the growth plate and bone, future studies should investigate potential adjuvant treatments to reduce chemotherapy-induced skeletal toxicities.BioMed Research International 03/2011; 2011:903097. DOI:10.1155/2011/903097 · 2.71 Impact Factor