Regulation of liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase I gene expression by hormones and fatty acids
ABSTRACT This brief review focuses on the transcriptional regulation of liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (L-CPT I) by pancreatic and thyroid hormones and by long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). Both glucagon and 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) enhanced the transcription of the gene encoding L-CPT I, whereas insulin had the opposite effect. Interestingly, the transcriptional effect of T(3) required, in addition to the thyroid-responsive element, the co-operation of a sequence located in the first intron of L-CPT I gene. Non-esterified fatty acids rather than acyl-CoA ester or intra-mitochondrial metabolite were responsible for the transcriptional effect on the gene encoding L-CPT I. It was shown that LCFA and peroxisome proliferators stimulated L-CPT I gene transcription by distinct mechanisms. Peroxisome proliferator stimulated L-CPT I gene transcription through a peroxisome-proliferator-responsive element (PPRE) located at -2846 bp, whereas LCFA induced L-CPT I gene transcription through a peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-independent mechanism owing to a sequence located in the first intron of the gene.
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ABSTRACT: Abomasal carnitine infusion during acute feed restriction increases hepatic fatty acid oxidation and decreases liver lipid in dairy cows. Eight mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 14-d periods. A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was used to determine the effects of water infusion + ad libitum dry matter intake (DMI), water infusion + restricted DMI (50% of previous 5-d average), l-carnitine infusion (20 g/d) + ad libitum DMI, or l-carnitine infusion + restricted DMI. Liver RNA from 7 healthy cows was used for transcriptome profiling using a bovine microarray. An ANOVA with a false discovery rate was used to identify treatment and interaction effects. A substantial transcriptome change was observed only with DMI restriction, resulting in 312 (155 downregulated, 157 upregulated) differentially expressed genes. Quantitative PCR was performed to verify microarray data and measure expression of additional genes not present on the microarray. The quantitative PCR data confirmed the effect of feed restriction but not of l-carnitine treatment. Feed restriction increased expression of GPX3 and of genes associated with gluconeogenesis (PC, PDK4), inflammation (SAA3), and signaling (ADIPOR2). In contrast, feed restriction downregulated BBOX, a key for l-carnitine biosynthesis, and the transcription factor HNF4A. The bioinformatics functional analysis of genes affected by DMI restriction uncovered biosynthesis of cholesterol and energy generation by mitochondrial respiration as the most relevant and inhibited functions. The data also indicated an increase of flux toward gluconeogenesis. We interpreted those results as a likely response of the liver to spare energy and provide glucose for the lactating mammary gland during feed deprivation.Journal of Dairy Science 02/2013; 96(4). DOI:10.3168/jds.2012-6036 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the effect of atorvastatin (5 and 30 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks) on hepatic lipid metabolism in a well established model of dietary hypertriglyceridemia, the fructose-fed rat. Fructose feeding (10% fructose in drinking water for 2 weeks) induced hepatic lipogenesis and reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) expression and fatty acid oxidation. As a result, plasma and liver triglyceride and plasma apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels were increased. Atorvastatin, 5 and 30 mg/kg during 2 weeks, markedly reduced plasma triglyceride, but decreased apoB levels only at the highest dose tested (50%). Triglyceride biosynthetic enzymes and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein were unchanged, whereas liver PPARalpha, acyl-CoA oxidase, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I mRNA levels (1.9-, 1.25-, and 3.4-fold, respectively) and hepatic fatty acid beta-oxidation activity (1.25-fold) were increased by atorvastatin at 30 mg/kg. Furthermore, hepatic triglyceride content (45%) and plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (49%) were reduced. These results show for the first time that liver triglyceride increase in fructose-fed rats is linked to decreased expression of PPARalpha, which is prevented by atorvastatin treatment. The increase in PPARalpha expression caused by atorvastatin was associated with reduced liver triglyceride and plasma NEFA levels.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 08/2002; 302(1):232-9. · 3.86 Impact Factor