Regulation of liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase I gene expression by hormones and fatty acids.
ABSTRACT This brief review focuses on the transcriptional regulation of liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (L-CPT I) by pancreatic and thyroid hormones and by long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). Both glucagon and 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) enhanced the transcription of the gene encoding L-CPT I, whereas insulin had the opposite effect. Interestingly, the transcriptional effect of T(3) required, in addition to the thyroid-responsive element, the co-operation of a sequence located in the first intron of L-CPT I gene. Non-esterified fatty acids rather than acyl-CoA ester or intra-mitochondrial metabolite were responsible for the transcriptional effect on the gene encoding L-CPT I. It was shown that LCFA and peroxisome proliferators stimulated L-CPT I gene transcription by distinct mechanisms. Peroxisome proliferator stimulated L-CPT I gene transcription through a peroxisome-proliferator-responsive element (PPRE) located at -2846 bp, whereas LCFA induced L-CPT I gene transcription through a peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-independent mechanism owing to a sequence located in the first intron of the gene.
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ABSTRACT: The liver plays a central role in metabolic homeostasis by coordinating synthesis, storage, breakdown, and redistribution of nutrients. Hepatic energy metabolism is dynamically regulated throughout different life stages due to different demands for energy during growth and development. However, changes in gene expression patterns throughout ontogeny for factors important in hepatic energy metabolism are not well understood. We performed detailed transcript analysis of energy metabolism genes during various stages of liver development in mice. Livers from male C57BL/6J mice were collected at twelve ages, including perinatal and postnatal time points (n = 3/age). The mRNA was quantified by RNA-Sequencing, with transcript abundance estimated by Cufflinks. One thousand sixty energy metabolism genes were examined; 794 were above detection, of which 627 were significantly changed during at least one developmental age compared to adult liver. Two-way hierarchical clustering revealed three major clusters dependent on age: GD17.5-Day 5 (perinatal-enriched), Day 10-Day 20 (pre-weaning-enriched), and Day 25-Day 60 (adolescence/adulthood-enriched). Clustering analysis of cumulative mRNA expression values for individual pathways of energy metabolism revealed three patterns of enrichment: glycolysis, ketogenesis, and glycogenesis were all perinatally-enriched; glycogenolysis was the only pathway enriched during pre-weaning ages; whereas lipid droplet metabolism, cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, gluconeogenesis, and lipid metabolism were all enriched in adolescence/adulthood. This study reveals novel findings such as the divergent expression of the fatty acid β-oxidation enzymes Acyl-CoA oxidase 1 and Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a, indicating a switch from mitochondrial to peroxisomal β-oxidation after weaning; as well as the dynamic ontogeny of genes implicated in obesity such as Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 and Elongation of very long chain fatty acids-like 3. These data shed new light on the ontogeny of homeostatic regulation of hepatic energy metabolism, which could ultimately provide new therapeutic targets for metabolic diseases.PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104560. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To give new insight to alterations of cardiac lipid metabolism accompanied by a fructose-rich diet (FRD), rats of both sexes were exposed to 10 % fructose in drinking water during 9 weeks. The protein level and subcellular localization of the main regulators of cardiac lipid metabolism, such as lipin 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1 α (PGC-1α), carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPTI), and CD36 were studied. Caloric intake in fructose-fed rats (FFR) of both sexes was increased. Circulating triacylglyceroles (TAG) and non-esterified fatty acids were increased in male FFR, while females increased visceral adiposity and blood TAG. Total expression of lipin 1 in cardiac cell lysate and its cytosolic and microsomal level were increased in the hearts of male FFR. PPARα and PGC-1α content were decreased in the nuclear extract. In addition, cardiac deposition of TAG in male FFR was elevated, as well as inhibitory phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1). In contrast, in female FFR, lipin 1 level was increased in nuclear extract only, while overall CPTI expression and phosphorylation of IRS-1 at serine 307 were decreased. The results of our study suggest that fructose diet causes gender-dependent alterations in cardiac lipid metabolism. Potentially detrimental effects of FRD seem to be limited to male rats. Most of the observed changes might be a consequence of elevated expression and altered localization of lipin 1. Increased inhibitory phosphorylation of IRS-1 is possible link between cardiac lipid metabolism and insulin resistance in FFR.Lipids 05/2014; · 2.56 Impact Factor