Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors as physiological sensors of fatty acid metabolism: molecular regulation in peroxisomes
ABSTRACT The enzymes required for the beta-oxidation of fatty acyl-CoA are present in peroxisomes and mitochondria. Administration of hypolipidaemic compounds such as clofibrate to rodents leads to an increase in the volume and density of peroxisomes in liver cells. These proliferators also induce simultaneously the expression of genes encoding acyl-CoA oxidase, enoyl-CoA hydratase-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (multifunctional enzyme) and thiolase (3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase). All these enzymes are responsible for long-chain and very-long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation in peroxisomes. Similar results were observed when rat hepatocytes, or liver-derived cell lines, were cultured with a peroxisome proliferator. The increased expression of these genes is due to the stimulation of their transcription rate. These results show that the peroxisome proliferators act on the hepatic cells and regulate the transcription through various cellular components and pathways, including peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). After activation by specific ligands, either fibrates or fatty acid derivatives, PPARalpha binds to a DNA response element: peroxisome-proliferator-responsive element (PPRE), which is a direct repeat of the following consensus sequence: TGACCTXTGACCT, found in the promoter region of the target genes. PPARalpha is expressed mainly in liver, intestine and kidney. PPARalpha is a transcriptional factor, which requires other nuclear proteins for function including retinoic acid X receptor (RXRalpha) and other regulatory proteins. From our results and others we suggest the role of PPARalpha in the regulation of the peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. In this regard, we showed that although PPARalpha binds to thiolase B gene promoter at -681 to -669, a better response is observed with hepatic nuclear factor 4 ("HNf-4"). Moreover, rat liver PPARalpha regulatory activity is dependent on its phosphorylated state. In contrast, a protein-kinase-C-mediated signal transduction pathway seems to be modified by peroxisome proliferators, leading to an increase in the phosphorylation level of specific proteins, some of which have been shown to be involved in the phosphoinositide metabolism.
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ABSTRACT: The central role of peroxisomes in reactive oxygen species and lipid metabolism and their importance in brain functioning are well established. The aim of this work has been to study the peroxisomal population in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), at the age of three months when no apparent signs of behavioral, neuroanatomical, cytological, or biochemical alterations have been so far described. The expression and localization of peroxisomal (PMP70, CAT, AOX, and THL) and peroxisome-related proteins (PEX5p, GPX1, SOD1, and SOD2) were studied in the neocortex and hippocampus of transgenic and wild-type animals. Oxidative stress markers (TBARS, acrolein, and 8-OHG) were also evaluated. Our results demonstrate that significant alterations are already detectable at this early stage of the disease and also involve peroxisomes. Their number and protein composition change concomitantly with early oxidative stress. Interestingly, the neocortex shows a compensatory response, consisting in an increase of reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes, while the hippocampus appears more prone to the oxidative insult. This different behavior could be related to metabolic differences in the two brain areas, also involving peroxisome abundance and/or enzymatic content.Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 09/2009; 18(4):935-52. · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In November 2002 the tanker Prestige released more than 60,000t of a heavy fuel oil which spread over Galician waters and the Biscay Bay, affecting coastal ecosystems. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are the main components of the Prestige fuel oil and induce biotransformation metabolism and peroxisome proliferation in marine organisms. In vertebrates, this later response involves peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, that act upon heterodimerization with the retinoid X receptor (RXR). In order to assess the possible biological effects of the Prestige oil spill in the Biscay Bay, male and female juvenile and adult European hakes Merluccius merluccius were sampled in June and December 2004 and 2005. PCR screening of hake liver cDNA with degenerate primers resulted in cloning and sequencing of cDNA fragments of PPARα (1011bp), PPARγ (812bp), RXR (270bp) and of the PPARα target gene palmitoyl-CoA oxidase (AOX1, 792bp). Fragments of another 9 toxicologically relevant genes were also cloned and sequenced. PPARα mRNA expression was not significantly different among groups. In juvenile females transcription of PPARγ, RXR and AOX1 significantly increased in June 2005 when compared to June 2004. In adult males levels of AOX1 decreased in the same period. AOX1 and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities, measured as exposure biomarkers, differed between years only in males sampled in June. EROD activity was higher in 2004 than in 2005 in adults, whereas both juvenile and adults showed higher AOX1 activity in 2005. The lack of historical data previous to the accident or in areas not affected by the accident did not allow to relate observed variations in gene transcription levels and enzyme activities to the Prestige oil spill. Reported data could be useful for comparison purposes for future studies in European hake and contributes gene sequence information relevant for future toxicological studies.Marine Genomics 09/2009; 2(3-4):201-13. DOI:10.1016/j.margen.2009.10.004 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The central role of peroxisomes in ROS and lipid metabolism and their importance in brain functioning are well established. The aim of this work was to study the modulation of peroxisomal and peroxisome-related proteins in cortical neurons in vitro challenged with chronic or acute Abeta treatment, in order to investigate whether peroxisomes represent one of the cellular target of Abeta in these cells. The expression of peroxisomal (PMP70, catalase, acyl-CoA oxidase and thiolase), peroxisome-related (PPARalpha, insulin-degrading enzyme) and anti-oxidant (SOD1, SOD2, GSTP1) proteins was studied. The results obtained, demonstrating an early upregulation of the peroxisomal proteins during the chronic challenge, followed by their dramatic impairment after acute challenge, suggest that peroxisomes represent one of the first line of defence against Abeta-mediated oxidative injury. Our results support the notion that substances able to activate PPARalpha and/or to induce peroxisomal proliferation may constitute a novel preventive and/or therapeutic tool against neurodegenerative diseases.Current Alzheimer research 07/2009; 6(3):238-51. · 3.80 Impact Factor