Travel and the introduction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 non-B subtype genetic forms into Western countries.
ABSTRACT Both high mutation rates and recombination contribute to the genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Among viruses of the main group, which are responsible for the HIV-1 pandemic, 21 circulating genetic forms have been reported, 11 of which are recombinant between > or = 2 subtypes. In Western Europe and the Americas, the HIV-1 epidemic is largely dominated by B subtype viruses; however, infections with diverse non-B subtype genetic forms are increasingly being recognized. In Western Europe and North America, most of them have been identified in immigrants or travelers returning from areas with high HIV-1 prevalence, mainly from sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, where non-B subtype genetic forms predominate, but propagation within other groups has been reported in some Western countries. This may have implications for prophylactic and therapeutic strategies and, by bringing in contact different genetic forms, may favor the generation of novel recombinant viruses. Travelers from different categories--including immigrants, military personnel, seamen, tourists, expatriates, diplomats, and businessmen--may be at risk of transporting HIV non-B subtype genetic forms to Western countries.
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ABSTRACT: There are 31 million adults living with HIV-1 non-B subtypes globally, and about 10 million are on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Global evidence to guide clinical practice on ART response in HIV-1 non-B subtypes remains limited. We systematically searched 11 databases for the period 1996 to 2013 for evidence. Outcomes documented included time to development of AIDS and/or death, resistance mutations, opportunistic infections, and changes in CD4 cell counts and viral load. A lack of consistent reporting of all clinical end points precluded a meta-analysis. In sum, genetic diversity that precipitated differences in disease progression in ART-naïve populations was minimized in ART-experienced populations, although variability in resistance mutations persisted across non-B subtypes. To improve the quality of patient care in global settings, recording HIV genotypes at baseline and at virologic failure with targeted non-B subtype-based point-of-care resistance assays and timely phasing out of resistance-inducing ART regimens is recommended.Journal of the International AIDS Society 05/2014; 17:18944. · 4.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phylodynamic, sequence data based reconstructions for the surveillance of the geographic spatial spread are a powerful tool in molecular epidemiology. In this study region of origin for the set of 57 partial pol sequences derived from the patients the history of travel-related HIV transmission was analysed using phylogeographic approach. Maximum likelihood trees based on the sets of country-annotated reference sequences were inferred for identified non-B variants. Region of sequence import was assigned using on the highest approximate likelihood ratios. Import of the A1 clades was traced to the Eastern Europe and associated with immigration from this region. Subtype C infections clustered most frequently with sequences of the South African origin while majority of subtype Ds were similar to the European clades. Subtype G sequences clustered with Portuguese lineage, CRF01_AE with Eastern or South-Eastern Asian. Eastern European, Middle African or Western African lineage was assigned for the CFR02_AG. Rare circulating recombinants originated either from Central Africa (CRF11_cpx - Democratic Republic of Congo, CRF13_cpx - Central African Republic, CRF37_cpx - Cameroon) or South America (CRF28_BF and CRF46_BF - Brazil). Import of the HIV-1 non-B variants, including recombinant forms previously rarely found in Poland and Europe is frequent among travellers. Observed founder events result in the heterosexually-driven introduction of the novel HIV-1 variants into the population.Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 07/2014; · 3.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction. The evolutionary and demographic history of the circular recombinant form CRF02_AG in a selected retrospective group of HIV-1 infected men who have sex with men (MSM) resident in Central Italy was investigated. Methods. A total of 55 HIV-1 subtype CRF02_AG pol sequences were analyzed using Bayesian methods and a relaxed molecular clock to reconstruct their dated phylogeny and estimate population dynamics. Results. Dated phylogeny indicated that the HIV-1 CRF02_AG strains currently circulating in Central Italy originated in the early 90's. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of a main HIV-1 CRF02_AG clade, introduced in the area of Rome before 2000 and subsequently differentiated in two different subclades with a different date of introduction (2000 versus 2005). All the sequences within clusters were interspersed, indicating that the MSM analyzed form a close and restricted network where the individuals, also moving within different clinical centers, attend the same places to meet and exchange sex. Conclusions. It was suggested that the HIV-1 CRF02_AG epidemic entered central Italy in the early 1990s, with a similar trend observed in western Europe.BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:810617.