The role of bacteriologic infection in the etiology of nasolacrimal duct obstruction.
ABSTRACT In patients with nasolacrimal duct obstruction, the inflammation and fibrosis may be secondary to coexisting infectious colonization within the lumen of the lacrimal sac. We examined the bacterial flora within the lacrimal sac at the sac-duct junction to explore the possibility of a primary bacteriologic etiology of the inflammatory response.
The study included 114 consecutive patients (132 sides) with epiphora undergoing routine external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) at a tertiary care hospital in Toronto between November 1999 and April 2000. A lacrimal sac tissue biopsy specimen was acquired intraoperatively from the inferior posterior lacrimal sac near the sac-duct junction. Microbiologic analysis was carried out to determine the presence and identification of infectious organisms.
Culture gave positive results in 51 patients (44.7%) (41.7% of specimens). A total of 65 isolates were cultured, of which 78.5% were gram-positive bacteria and 21.5% gram-negative bacteria. Of the gram-positive organisms 76.5% were Staphylococcus sp. The presence of a positive culture result was independent of a history of dacryocystitis or the presence of a mucocele.
Using direct biopsy methods, we found culture-positive lacrimal sac specimens in a large proportion of patients undergoing DCR surgery. These organisms were found to be present in patients with and without a history of infection.
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ABSTRACT: A 10-year-old female spayed Vizsla had intermittent mucoid ocular discharge from the right eye for 7 years. History, clinical findings, imaging studies, and culture and histopathology results confirmed chronic dacryocystitis with granuloma. A dacryocystomaxillorhinostomy was performed to preserve the functional portions of the nasolacrimal system remaining in this patient, as well as to promote healing of the lacrimal sac granuloma and secondary infection. Complete resolution of the clinical abnormalities was achieved, and the dog remains healthy 3 years postoperatively.Veterinary Ophthalmology 01/2006; 9(2):89-94. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine the microbiologic spectrum of dacryocystitis, specifically characterizing differences between acute and chronic infection. National multicenter prospective study of the microbiologic spectrum of acute and chronic dacryocystitis based on culture results reported between March 2005 and March 2006. Chi-square analysis was used to compare differences between groups. Eighty-nine patients from 16 centers were included: 21 (23.6%) patients had acute infection and 68 (76.4%) had chronic infection. Of all 89 patients, there were 80 total culture isolates with 55 (68.8%) Gram-positive isolates, 23 (28.7%) Gram-negative isolates, and 2 (2.5%) Mycobacterium isolates. In the acute group, 18/23 (78.3%) were Gram-positive and 5/23 (21.7%) were Gram-negative. In the chronic group, 37/57 (64.9%) were Gram-positive, 18/57 (31.6%) were Gram-negative, and 2/57 (3.5%) were Mycobacterium isolates. The proportions of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms between groups revealed no statistically significant difference (p > 0.20). The frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the acute group, 4/23 (17.4%), was greater than the chronic group, 1/57 (1.8%) (p < or = 0.01). Gram-positive organisms were much more common than Gram-negative organisms overall, and the proportions did not differ significantly between the groups. Staphylococcus was the most common isolate in both groups, but there was a greater frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in the acute group. The results of this study have important implications for the treatment of dacryocystitis.Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 01/2007; 23(4):302-6. · 0.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dacryoscintigraphy is a grossly underutilized nuclear medicine procedure for assessing the patency of nasolacrimal ducts. It is an alternate noninvasive modality requiring no added expertise when compared with dacryocystography, an invasive radiological counterpart. Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is a surgical procedure in which a patent rhinostomy is made so that a low-pressure lacrimal bypass system is created, thus relieving epiphora, dacryocystitis or mucocele. DCR has been accepted as a highly successful procedure in the management of epiphora from nasolacrimal duct obstruction; however, adverse local effects can reproduce epiphora. This study highlights the utility and simplicity of dacryoscintigraphy in the postoperative setting of DCR, apart from showcasing its high sensitivity and accuracy in localizing the sites of lacrimal drainage obstruction. Fifty-five postoperative patients of DCR were screened. Ten volunteers constituted the control group. One drop (10 μl) of technetium pertechnetate (TcO4) was instilled simultaneously in the outer canthus of both eyes (50-100 μCi). Upright dynamic (8 min) and anterior static images of the eyes (up to 20 min) were acquired on a gamma camera fitted with a high-resolution collimator. Physiological interventions that were used in this study were eye blinking, saline intervention, and lacrimal sac massaging. Out of 40 symptomatic DCR patients, 22 had complete obstruction at the presac level and 18 patients had partial obstruction. Quantitative parameters like tear transit time and lacrimal sac half-life were also calculated. After massage of the lacrimal sac, progression of the tracer was observed in five patients. Premassage and postmassage tear column measurements showed a relative increase of 30.1%. Massage of eight clinically normal ducts showed a relative increase of 2.4% (P=0.06). Statistical analysis using the Fisher test shows very significant concordance between clinical symptoms and dacryoscintigraphy findings in postoperative DCR patients (P<0.0001). The modified McNemar's pair test did not show statistically significant differences between dacryoscintigraphy and the syringing irrigation test. Dacryoscintigraphy is a simple and easy-to-perform investigation providing high sensitivity in epiphora detection in patients after DCR. Interventions play a role in further enhancing the sensitivity of the technique. This study demonstrates the utility of dacryoscintigraphy in detecting subclinical and partial lacrimal duct obstruction with good patient compliance. It provides an easy and effective way of screening families, enabling an early diagnosis. During imaging, a high-resolution collimator is found to be an efficient substitute for the conventional pinhole collimator.Nuclear Medicine Communications 12/2011; 33(3):262-7. · 1.38 Impact Factor