Brachytherapy for prostate cancer: endorectal MR imaging of local treatment-related changes.
ABSTRACT To determine the local treatment-related endorectal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings after brachytherapy for prostate cancer.
Endorectal MR imaging was performed in 35 consecutive patients at a mean interval of 12 months (range, 1-31 months) after brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Transverse T1-weighted and high-spatial-resolution transverse and coronal T2-weighted images were acquired. Two readers reviewed MR image quality and findings, with discrepancies resolved by consensus. Posttreatment urinary symptoms in patients (n = 24) were documented by using chart review.
All studies were of diagnostic quality. On T2-weighted images, prostatic findings consisted of diffuse low signal intensity (n = 35) and indistinct zonal anatomy (n = 34). Intra- and extraprostatic seed locations could be distinguished. The most common extraprostatic site of seed implantation was the neurovascular bundles (n = 35, bilateral in 32). The most common extraprostatic tissue finding was increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images in the levator ani muscle (n = 34) and the genitourinary diaphragm (n = 28). Postbrachytherapy urinary symptoms showed no demonstrable correlation with periurethral or genitourinary diaphragm seed implantation or with signal intensity change in the genitourinary diaphragm.
Endorectal MR imaging can be used to evaluate seed distribution and to demonstrate treatment-related changes after brachytherapy for prostate cancer.
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