Brachytherapy for prostate cancer: endorectal MR imaging of local treatment-related changes.
ABSTRACT To determine the local treatment-related endorectal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings after brachytherapy for prostate cancer.
Endorectal MR imaging was performed in 35 consecutive patients at a mean interval of 12 months (range, 1-31 months) after brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Transverse T1-weighted and high-spatial-resolution transverse and coronal T2-weighted images were acquired. Two readers reviewed MR image quality and findings, with discrepancies resolved by consensus. Posttreatment urinary symptoms in patients (n = 24) were documented by using chart review.
All studies were of diagnostic quality. On T2-weighted images, prostatic findings consisted of diffuse low signal intensity (n = 35) and indistinct zonal anatomy (n = 34). Intra- and extraprostatic seed locations could be distinguished. The most common extraprostatic site of seed implantation was the neurovascular bundles (n = 35, bilateral in 32). The most common extraprostatic tissue finding was increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images in the levator ani muscle (n = 34) and the genitourinary diaphragm (n = 28). Postbrachytherapy urinary symptoms showed no demonstrable correlation with periurethral or genitourinary diaphragm seed implantation or with signal intensity change in the genitourinary diaphragm.
Endorectal MR imaging can be used to evaluate seed distribution and to demonstrate treatment-related changes after brachytherapy for prostate cancer.
SourceAvailable from: Valeria Panebianco[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The clinical suspicion of local recurrence of prostate cancer (PCa) after radical prostatectomy (RP) and after radiation therapy (RT) is based on the onset of biochemical failure. The aim of this paper was to review the current role of multiparametric-MRI (mp-MRI) in the detection of locoregional recurrence. A systematic literature search using the Medline and Cochrane Library databases was performed from January 1995 up to November 2013. Bibliographies of retrieved and review articles were also examined. Only those articles reporting complete data with clinical relevance for the present review were selected. This review article is divided into two major parts: the first one considers the role of mp-MRI in the detection of PCa local recurrence after RP; the second part provides an insight about the impact of mp-MRI in the depiction of locoregional recurrence after RT (interstitial or external beam). Published data indicate an emerging role for mp-MRI in the detection and localization of locally recurrent PCa both after RP and RT which represents an information of paramount importance to perform focal salvage treatments.BioMed Research International 05/2014; 2014:316272. DOI:10.1155/2014/316272 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MR localization of implanted devices for radiotherapy (RT) in prostatic carcinoma is critical for treatment planning. This clinical note studies the application of a multi-echo gradient recalled echo (GRE) pulse sequence with sum of squares echo combination (ME GRE) to enhance detection of seeds and fiducials. Fifteen patients who underwent MRI using fast spin echo (FSE), single-echo and ME GRE over a 9-month period were retrospectively evaluated by two readers who assessed overall image quality, depiction of seeds/fiducials and image sharpness using a 5-point scale (1 = poor, 2 = suboptimal, 3 = adequate, 4 = above average, 5 = excellent). Image scores were compared using the Wilcoxon sign rank test. In all 15 patients, both readers rated the depiction of seeds/fiducials with ME GRE as excellent. In all 15 patients, overall image quality and image sharpness with ME GRE was rated as excellent by reader 1. In 12/15 patients, overall image quality and image sharpness with ME GRE was rated as excellent and in the other patients above average by reader 2. There was a difference in depiction of seeds/fiducials comparing GRE to FSE (P < 0.001) and ME to single echo GRE (P < 0.001). Overall image quality and sharpness was higher with ME compared with single echo GRE (P < 0.001) and similar to FSE (P = 0.26 and P = 0.16). Multi-echo GRE provides better detection of implanted seeds and fiducial markers when compared with both FSE and single-echo GRE potentially improving RT treatment planning for prostate carcinoma.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 03/2015; 41(3). DOI:10.1002/jmri.24590 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Brachytherapy, also known as sealed source or internal radiation therapy, involves placement of a radioactive source immediately adjacent to or within tumor, thus enabling delivery of a localized high dose of radiation. Compared with external beam radiation which must first pass through non-target tissues, brachytherapy results in less radiation dose to normal tissues. In the past decade, brachytherapy use has markedly increased, thus radiologists are encountering brachytherapy devices and their associated post-treatment changes to increasing degree. This review will present a variety of brachytherapy devices that radiologists may encounter during diagnostic pelvic imaging with a focus on prostate and gynecologic malignancies. The reader will become familiar with the function, correct position, and potential complications of brachytherapy devices in an effort to improve diagnostic reporting and communication with clinicians.Abdominal Imaging 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00261-015-0407-y · 1.73 Impact Factor