Brachytherapy for prostate cancer: endorectal MR imaging of local treatment-related changes.

Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave, New York, NY 10021, USA.
Radiology (Impact Factor: 6.34). 07/2001; 219(3):817-21. DOI: 10.1148/radiology.219.3.r01jn46817
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine the local treatment-related endorectal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings after brachytherapy for prostate cancer.
Endorectal MR imaging was performed in 35 consecutive patients at a mean interval of 12 months (range, 1-31 months) after brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Transverse T1-weighted and high-spatial-resolution transverse and coronal T2-weighted images were acquired. Two readers reviewed MR image quality and findings, with discrepancies resolved by consensus. Posttreatment urinary symptoms in patients (n = 24) were documented by using chart review.
All studies were of diagnostic quality. On T2-weighted images, prostatic findings consisted of diffuse low signal intensity (n = 35) and indistinct zonal anatomy (n = 34). Intra- and extraprostatic seed locations could be distinguished. The most common extraprostatic site of seed implantation was the neurovascular bundles (n = 35, bilateral in 32). The most common extraprostatic tissue finding was increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images in the levator ani muscle (n = 34) and the genitourinary diaphragm (n = 28). Postbrachytherapy urinary symptoms showed no demonstrable correlation with periurethral or genitourinary diaphragm seed implantation or with signal intensity change in the genitourinary diaphragm.
Endorectal MR imaging can be used to evaluate seed distribution and to demonstrate treatment-related changes after brachytherapy for prostate cancer.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Imaging plays a central role in the detection, diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of prostate carcinoma. This article discusses the role of multiple imaging modalities in the diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer, with attention to imaging features of localized and metastatic disease, imaging adjuncts to improve prostate biopsy, and potential imaging biomarkers. In addition, the role of imaging in the management of prostate cancer, with emphasis on surveillance, evaluation of response to new therapies, and detection of recurrent disease is described. Lastly, future directions in prostate cancer imaging are presented.
    Hematology/oncology clinics of North America 12/2013; 27(6):1163-87. · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The clinical suspicion of local recurrence of prostate cancer (PCa) after radical prostatectomy (RP) and after radiation therapy (RT) is based on the onset of biochemical failure. The aim of this paper was to review the current role of multiparametric-MRI (mp-MRI) in the detection of locoregional recurrence. A systematic literature search using the Medline and Cochrane Library databases was performed from January 1995 up to November 2013. Bibliographies of retrieved and review articles were also examined. Only those articles reporting complete data with clinical relevance for the present review were selected. This review article is divided into two major parts: the first one considers the role of mp-MRI in the detection of PCa local recurrence after RP; the second part provides an insight about the impact of mp-MRI in the depiction of locoregional recurrence after RT (interstitial or external beam). Published data indicate an emerging role for mp-MRI in the detection and localization of locally recurrent PCa both after RP and RT which represents an information of paramount importance to perform focal salvage treatments.
    BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:316272. · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess radiotherapy (RT)-induced changes in the urethra and periurethral tissues after treatment for prostate cancer (PCa). This retrospective study included 108 men (median age, 64 years; range, 43-87 years) who received external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and/or brachytherapy for PCa and underwent endorectal-coil MRI of the prostate within 180 days before RT and a median of 20 months (range, 2-62 months) after RT. On all MRIs, two readers independently measured the urethral length (UL) and graded the margin definition (MD) of the urethral wall and the signal intensities (SIs) of the urethral wall and pelvic muscles on 4-point scales. The mean urethral length decreased significantly from pre- to post-RT MRI (from 15.2 to 12.6mm and from 14.4 to 12.9mm for readers 1 and 2, respectively; both p-values <0.0001). Brachytherapy resulted in greater urethral shortening than EBRT. After RT, SI in the urethral wall increased in 57% (62/108) and 35% (38/108) of patients (readers 1 and 2, respectively). The frequency and magnitude of SI increase in pelvic muscles depended on muscle location. In the obturator internus muscle, SI increased more often after EBRT than after brachytherapy, while in the periurethral levator ani muscle SI increased more often after brachytherapy than after EBRT. After RT for PCa, MRI shows urethral shortening and increased SI of the urethral wall and pelvic muscles in substantial percentages of patients.
    European journal of radiology 09/2013; · 2.65 Impact Factor