Regional dendritic and spine variation in human cerebral cortex: a quantitative Golgi study
ABSTRACT The present study explored differences in dendritic/spine extent across several human cortical regions. Specifically, the basilar dendrites/spines of supragranular pyramidal cells were examined in eight Brodmann's areas (BA) arranged according to Benson's (1993, Behav Neurol 6:75-81) functional hierarchy: primary cortex (somatosensory, BA3-1-2; motor, BA4), unimodal cortex (Wernicke's area, BA22; Broca's area, BA44), heteromodal cortex (supple- mentary motor area, BA6beta; angular gyrus, BA39) and supramodal cortex (superior frontopolar zone, BA10; inferior frontopolar zone, BA11). To capture more general aspects of regional variability, primary and unimodal areas were designated as low integrative regions; heteromodal and supramodal areas were designated as high integrative regions. Tissue was obtained from the left hemisphere of 10 neurologically normal individuals (M(age) = 30 +/- 17 years; five males, five females) and stained with a modified rapid Golgi technique. Ten neurons were sampled from each cortical region (n = 800) and evaluated according to total dendritic length, mean segment length, dendritic segment count, dendritic spine number and dendritic spine density. Despite considerable inter-individual variation, there were significant differences across the eight Brodmann's areas and between the high and low integrative regions for all dendritic and spine measures. Dendritic systems in primary and unimodal regions were consistently less complex than in heteromodal and supramodal areas. The range within these rankings was substantial, with total dendritic length in BA10 being 31% greater than that in BA3-1-2, and dendritic spine number being 69% greater. These findings demonstrate that cortical regions involved in the early stages of processing (e.g. primary sensory areas) generally exhibit less complex dendritic/spine systems than those regions involved in the later stages of information processing (e.g. prefrontal cortex). This dendritic progression appears to reflect significant differences in the nature of cortical processing, with spine-dense neurons at hierarchically higher association levels integrating a broader range of synaptic input than those at lower cortical levels.
SourceAvailable from: Philip Chu
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Four distinct proteins are regulated in the aging neuroretina and may be regulated in the cerebral cortex, too: peroxiredoxin, beta-synuclein, PARK[Parkinson disease(autosomal recessive, early onset)]7/DJ-1, and Stathmin. Thus, we performed a comparative analysis of these proteins in the the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and primary visual cortex (V1) in rats, in order to detect putative common development-, maturation- and age-related changes. The expressions of peroxiredoxin, beta-synuclein, PARK[Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, early onset)]7/DJ-1, and Stathmin were compared in the newborn, juvenile, adult, and aged S1 and V1. Western blot (WB), quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses were employed to determine whether the changes identified by proteomics were verifiable at the cellular and molecular levels. All of the proteins were detected in both of the investigated cortical areas. Changes in the expressions of the four proteins were found throughout the life-time of the rats. Peroxiredoxin expression remained unchanged over life-time. Beta-Synuclein expression was massively increased up to the adult stage of life in both the S1 and V1. PARK[Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, early onset)]7/DJ-1 exhibited a massive up-regulation in both the S1 and V1 at all ages. Stathmin expression was massively down regulated after the neonatal period in both the S1 and V1. The detected protein alterations were analogous to their retinal profiles. This study is the first to provide evidence that peroxiredoxin, beta-synuclein, PARK[Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, early onset)]7/DJ-1, and Stathmin are associated with postnatal maturation and aging in both the S1 and V1 of rats. These changes may indicate their involvement in key functional pathways and may account for the onset or progression of age-related pathologies.Frontiers in Neuroanatomy 03/2015; 9:16. DOI:10.3389/fnana.2015.00016 · 4.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Laboratory instruction of neuroscience is often limited by the lack of physical resources and supplies (e.g., brains specimens, dissection kits, physiological equipment). Online databases can serve as supplements to material labs by providing professionally collected images of brain specimens and their underlying cellular populations with resolution and quality that is extremely difficult to access for strictly pedagogical purposes. We describe a method using two online databases, the Neuromorpho.org and the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA), that freely provide access to data from working brain scientists that can be modified for laboratory instruction/exercises. Neuromorpho.org is the first neuronal morphology database that provides qualitative and quantitative data from reconstructed cells analyzed in published scientific reports. The Neuromorpho.org database contains cross species and multiple neuronal phenotype datasets which allows for comparative examinations. The ABA provides modules that allow students to study the anatomy of the rodent brain, as well as observe the different cellular phenotypes that exist using histochemical labeling. Using these tools in conjunction, advanced students can ask questions about qualitative and quantitative neuronal morphology, then examine the distribution of the same cell types across the entire brain to gain a full appreciation of the magnitude of the brain's complexity.Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education 03/2015; 13(2):95-100.