Article

Schizophrenia and Schizophrenia-Spectrum Personality Disorders in the First-Degree Relatives of Children With Schizophrenia

Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Ричмонд, Virginia, United States
Archives of General Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 13.75). 07/2001; 58(6):581-8. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.58.6.581
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study tested the hypothesis that childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is a variant of adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS) by determining if first-degree relatives of COS probands have an increased risk for schizophrenia and schizotypal and paranoid personality disorders.
Relatives of COS probands (n = 148) were compared with relatives of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 368) and community control (n = 206) probands. Age-appropriate structured diagnostic interviews were used to assign DSM-III-R diagnoses to probands and their relatives. Family psychiatric history was elicited from multiple informants. Diagnoses of relatives were made blind to information about probands' diagnoses. Final consensus diagnoses, which integrated family history, direct interview information, and medical records, are reported in this article.
There was an increased lifetime morbid risk for schizophrenia (4.95% +/- 2.16%) and schizotypal personality disorder (4.20% +/- 2.06%) in the parents of COS probands compared with parents of ADHD (0.45% +/- 0.45%, 0.91% +/- 0.63%) and community control (0%) probands. The parents of COS probands diagnosed as having schizophrenia had an early age of first onset of schizophrenia. Risk for avoidant personality disorder (9.41% +/- 3.17%) was increased in the parents of COS probands compared with parents of community controls (1.67% +/- 1.17%).
The psychiatric disorders that do and do not aggregate in the parents of COS probands are remarkably similar to the disorders that do and do not aggregate in the parents of adults with schizophrenia in modern family studies. These findings provide compelling support for the hypothesis of etiological continuity between COS and AOS.

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    • "tional support that these results provide for the psychometric assess - ment of schizotypy by means of self - report . This is especially noteworthy , as the majority of previous research has focused on individuals deemed " at risk " for schizophrenia via different means , such as genetic predisposition or family history ( Kendler et al . , 1993 ; Asarnow et al . , 2001 ; Hans et al . , 2004 ) ."
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    • "It is generally acknowledged that schizophrenia falls on a spectrum of related conditions, starting with the subclinical personality construct of schizotypy, which refers to traits and behaviors exhibited in schizophrenia but with minimal functional impairment (Lenzenweger, 2010; Raballo and Parnas, 2011). Because schizotypy shares genetic liability with schizophrenia (Appels et al., 2004; Asarnow et al., 2001), investigating neurocognitive deficits in this population can provide a window into the neuropathology of schizophrenia without the accompanying confounds. "
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