Emi1 Is a Mitotic Regulator that Interacts with Cdc20 and Inhibits the Anaphase Promoting Complex
ABSTRACT We have discovered an early mitotic inhibitor, Emi1, which regulates mitosis by inhibiting the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC). Emi1 is a conserved F box protein containing a zinc binding region essential for APC inhibition. Emi1 accumulates before mitosis and is ubiquitylated and destroyed in mitosis, independent of the APC. Emi1 immunodepletion from cycling Xenopus extracts strongly delays cyclin B accumulation and mitotic entry, whereas nondestructible Emi1 stabilizes APC substrates and causes a mitotic block. Emi1 binds the APC activator Cdc20, and Cdc20 can rescue an Emi1-induced block to cyclin B destruction. Our results suggest that Emi1 regulates progression through early mitosis by preventing premature APC activation, and may help explain the well-known delay between cyclin B/Cdc2 activation and cyclin B destruction.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Edgar Kramer, Jul 04, 2015
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ABSTRACT: The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) is a conserved, multisubunit E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase that is active both in dividing and in postmitotic cells. Its contributions to life are especially well studied in the domain of cell division, in which the APC/C lies at the epicenter of a regulatory network that controls the directionality and timing of cell cycle events. Biochemical and structural work is shedding light on the overall organization of APC/C subunits and on the mechanism of substrate recognition and Ub chain initiation and extension as well as on the molecular mechanisms of a checkpoint that seizes control of APC/C activity during mitosis. Here, we review how these recent advancements are modifying our understanding of the APC/C.The Journal of Cell Biology 04/2013; 201(2):177-89. DOI:10.1083/jcb.201301130 · 9.69 Impact Factor
Dataset: Kimata DevCell 08
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ABSTRACT: The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase that regulates progression through the cell cycle by marking key cell division proteins for destruction. To ensure correct cell cycle progression, accurate timing of APC/C activity is important, which is obtained through its association with both activating and inhibitory subunits. However, although the APC/C is highly conserved among eukaryotes, no APC/C inhibitors are known in plants. Recently, we have identified ULTRAVIOLET-B-INSENSITIVE4 (UVI4) as a plant-specific component of the APC/C. Here, we demonstrate that UVI4 uses conserved APC/C interaction motifs to counteract the activity of the CELL CYCLE SWITCH52 A1 (CCS52A1) activator subunit, inhibiting the turnover of the A-type cyclin CYCA2;3. UVI4 is expressed in an S phase-dependent fashion, likely through the action of E2F transcription factors. Correspondingly, uvi4 mutant plants failed to accumulate CYCA2;3 during the S phase and prematurely exited the cell cycle, triggering the onset of the endocycle. We conclude that UVI4 regulates the temporal inactivation of APC/C during DNA replication, allowing CYCA2;3 to accumulate above the level required for entering mitosis, and thereby regulates the meristem size and plant growth rate.The Plant Cell 12/2011; 23(12):4394-410. DOI:10.1105/tpc.111.091793 · 9.58 Impact Factor