Article

Axon-glia interactions and the domain organization of myelinated axons requires neurexin IV/Caspr/Paranodin.

Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.
Neuron (Impact Factor: 15.77). 06/2001; 30(2):369-83. DOI: 10.1016/S0896-6273(01)00294-X
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Myelinated fibers are organized into distinct domains that are necessary for saltatory conduction. These domains include the nodes of Ranvier and the flanking paranodal regions where glial cells closely appose and form specialized septate-like junctions with axons. These junctions contain a Drosophila Neurexin IV-related protein, Caspr/Paranodin (NCP1). Mice that lack NCP1 exhibit tremor, ataxia, and significant motor paresis. In the absence of NCP1, normal paranodal junctions fail to form, and the organization of the paranodal loops is disrupted. Contactin is undetectable in the paranodes, and K(+) channels are displaced from the juxtaparanodal into the paranodal domains. Loss of NCP1 also results in a severe decrease in peripheral nerve conduction velocity. These results show a critical role for NCP1 in the delineation of specific axonal domains and the axon-glia interactions required for normal saltatory conduction.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
81 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Subtle defects in paranodes of myelinated nerve fibers can cause significant physiological malfunction. We have investigated myelinated fibers in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) of the Trembler mouse, a model of CMT-1A neuropathy, for evidence of such defects. Ultrastructural analysis shows that the "transverse bands," which attach the myelin sheath to the axon at the paranodal axoglial junction, are grossly diminished in number in Trembler nerve fibers. Although paranodes often appear to be greatly elongated, it is only a short region immediately adjacent to the node of Ranvier that displays transverse bands. Where transverse bands are missing, the junctional gap widens, thus reducing resistance to short circuiting of nodal action currents during saltatory conduction and increasing the likelihood that axonal K(+) channels under the myelin sheath will be activated. In addition, we find evidence that structural domains in Trembler axons are incompletely differentiated, consistent with diminution in nodal Na channel density, which could further compromise conduction. Deficiency of transverse bands may also increase susceptibility to disruption of the paranodal junction and retraction of the myelin sheath. We conclude that Trembler PNS myelinated fibers display subtle defects in paranodal and nodal regions that could contribute significantly to conduction defects and increased risk of myelin detachment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 01/2014; · 2.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) are present in some neuromyelitis optica patients who lack antibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG). The effects of neuromyelitis optica MOG-IgG in the central nervous system have not been investigated in vivo. We microinjected MOG-IgG, obtained from patients with neuromyelitis optica, into mouse brains and compared the results with AQP4-IgG. MOG-IgG caused myelin changes and altered the expression of axonal proteins that are essential for action potential firing, but did not produce inflammation, axonal loss, neuronal or astrocyte death. These changes were independent of complement and recovered within two weeks. By contrast, AQP4-IgG produced complement-mediated myelin loss, neuronal and astrocyte death with limited recovery at two weeks. These differences mirror the better outcomes for MOG-IgG compared with AQP4-IgG patients and raise the possibility that MOG-IgG contributes to pathology in some neuromyelitis optica patients.
    Acta neuropathologica communications. 03/2014; 2(1):35.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fast, saltatory conduction in myelinated nerves requires the clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) at nodes of Ranvier in a nodal complex. The Neurofascin (Nfasc) gene encodes neuronal Neurofascin 186 (Nfasc186) at the node and glial Neurofascin 155 at the paranode, and these proteins play a key role in node assembly. However, their role in the maintenance and stability of the node is less well understood. Here we show that by inducible ablation of Nfasc in neurons in adult mice, Nfasc186 expression is reduced by >99% and 94% at PNS and CNS nodes, respectively. Gliomedin and NrCAM at PNS and brevican at CNS nodes are largely lost with neuronal neurofascin; however, Nav at nodes of Ranvier persist, albeit with ∼40% reduction in expression levels. βIV Spectrin, ankyrin G, and, to a lesser extent, the β1 subunit of the sodium channel, are less affected at the PNS node than in the CNS. Nevertheless, there is a 38% reduction in PNS conduction velocity. Loss of Nfasc186 provokes CNS paranodal disorganization, but this does not contribute to loss of Nav. These results show that Nav at PNS nodes are still maintained in a nodal complex when neuronal neurofascin is depleted, whereas the retention of nodal Nav in the CNS, despite more extensive dissolution of the complex, suggests a supportive role for the partially disrupted paranodal axoglial junction in selectively maintaining Nav at the CNS node.
    Journal of Neuroscience 04/2014; 34(15):5083-8. · 6.91 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
44 Downloads
Available from
Jun 3, 2014