On-site field sampling and analysis of fragrance from living lavender (Lavandula angustifolia L.) flowers by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and ion-trap mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT Solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry has been applied as a simple alternative method for the analysis of essential oil directly from lavender intact flowering spikes and genuine oils. All recognised major oil constituents were detected by this procedure, with results comparable to those given by a conventional method (organic solvent extraction). Distinctive chromatographic profiles were found for various species.
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ABSTRACT: Despite the commercial importance of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and L. x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel floral essential oils (EOs), no information is currently available on potential changes in individual volatile organic compound (VOC) content during inflorescence development. Calyces were found to be the main sites of VOC accumulation. The 20 most abundant VOCs could be separated into three sub-groups according to their patterns of change in concentration The three groups of VOCs sequentially dominated the global scent bouquet of inflorescences, the transition between the first and second groups occurring around the opening of the first flower of the inflorescence and the one between the second and third groups at the start of seed set. Changes in calyx VOC accumulation were linked to the developmental stage of individual flowers. Leaves accumulated a smaller number of VOCs which were a subset of those seen in preflowering inflorescences. Their nature and content remained constant during the growing season. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction assessments of the expression of two terpene synthase (TPS) genes, LaLIMS and LaLINS, revealed similar trends between their patterns of expression and those of their VOC products. Molecular and chemical analyses suggest that changes in TPS expression occur during lavender inflorescence development and lead to changes in EO composition. Both molecular data and terpene analysis support the findings that changes in biosynthesis of terpene occurred during inflorescence development.Physiologia Plantarum 10/2009; 138(2):150-63. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper describes the design of a new instrumental technique, Gas Chromatography Recomposition-Olfactometry (GC-R), that adapts the reconstitution technique used in flavor chemistry studies by extracting volatiles from a sample by headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME), separating the extract on a capillary GC column, and recombining individual compounds selectively as they elute off of the column into a mixture for sensory analysis (Figure 1). Using the chromatogram of a mixture as a map, the GC-R instrument allows the operator to "cut apart" and recombine the components of the mixture at will, selecting compounds, peaks, or sections based on retention time to include or exclude in a reconstitution for sensory analysis. Selective recombination is accomplished with the installation of a Deans Switch directly in-line with the column, which directs compounds either to waste or to a cryotrap at the operator's discretion. This enables the creation of, for example, aroma reconstitutions incorporating all of the volatiles in a sample, including instrumentally undetectable compounds as well those present at concentrations below sensory thresholds, thus correcting for the "reconstitution discrepancy" sometimes noted in flavor chemistry studies. Using only flowering lavender (Lavandula angustifola 'Hidcote Blue') as a source for volatiles, we used the instrument to build mixtures of subsets of lavender volatiles in-instrument and characterized their aroma qualities with a sensory panel. We showed evidence of additive, masking, and synergistic effects in these mixtures and of "lavender' aroma character as an emergent property of specific mixtures. This was accomplished without the need for chemical standards, reductive aroma models, or calculation of Odor Activity Values, and is broadly applicable to any aroma or flavor.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e42693. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The world demand for lavender essential oil is still in-creasing. It is estimated that over two hundred thousands hectares are being cultivated in Europe and the quality of produced essential oil is important especially for medici-nal and pharmaceutical uses as well as for aromatherapy. We tested and evaluated the quantity and the quality of essential oil produced by one lavender genotype, Lavan-dula angustifolia var etherio, which is well adapted in Greece region, in two different experimental sites (Kato Sholari and Kilkis). The diurnal essential oil yield and oil composition were also tested. The genotype presented an excellent transplantation degree and high survival percent-age in the field. Small differences were recorded in produc-tion of oil between the experimental sites (for Kato Scho-lari was 2.67 ±0.12% and for Kilkis region 2.54 ±0.13%). Differences were recorded in essential oil composition be-tween the experimental sites. The main compounds were linalyl acetate (30.62%), linalool (29.56%), 1,8-cineole (5.18%) and camphor (4.03%) for Kato Sholari. The main compounds for Kilkis were linalyl acetate (26.92%), lina-lool (16.78%), 1,8-cineole (15.55%) and camphor (7.41%). Diurnal differences in oil yield were not observed. In con-trast the major compounds percentage showed differences. The high content of linalyl acetate and linalool and low con-tent of 1,8-cineole and camphor for Kato Scholari resulted in a very pleasant and delightful aroma. The selection of a field for lavender cultivation in a big scale should take into consideration the local conditions. Calcareous, well drain-age light substrates are suggested as the most suitable for lavender oil production. It is also concluded from this study that the best time for lavender harvesting is after midday and during afternoon where the linalyl acetate is higher.Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 07/2010; 19:1491-98. · 0.64 Impact Factor