Solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry has been applied as a simple alternative method for the analysis of essential oil directly from lavender intact flowering spikes and genuine oils. All recognised major oil constituents were detected by this procedure, with results comparable to those given by a conventional method (organic solvent extraction). Distinctive chromatographic profiles were found for various species.
"The fiber was exposed to the headspace of the vial for 30 minutes at room temperature, then withdrawn and immediately desorbed in the GC inlet. Chromatographic conditions were adapted from . Separation was performed using a 30 m×25 mm i.d. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes the design of a new instrumental technique, Gas Chromatography Recomposition-Olfactometry (GC-R), that adapts the reconstitution technique used in flavor chemistry studies by extracting volatiles from a sample by headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME), separating the extract on a capillary GC column, and recombining individual compounds selectively as they elute off of the column into a mixture for sensory analysis (Figure 1). Using the chromatogram of a mixture as a map, the GC-R instrument allows the operator to "cut apart" and recombine the components of the mixture at will, selecting compounds, peaks, or sections based on retention time to include or exclude in a reconstitution for sensory analysis. Selective recombination is accomplished with the installation of a Deans Switch directly in-line with the column, which directs compounds either to waste or to a cryotrap at the operator's discretion. This enables the creation of, for example, aroma reconstitutions incorporating all of the volatiles in a sample, including instrumentally undetectable compounds as well those present at concentrations below sensory thresholds, thus correcting for the "reconstitution discrepancy" sometimes noted in flavor chemistry studies. Using only flowering lavender (Lavandula angustifola 'Hidcote Blue') as a source for volatiles, we used the instrument to build mixtures of subsets of lavender volatiles in-instrument and characterized their aroma qualities with a sensory panel. We showed evidence of additive, masking, and synergistic effects in these mixtures and of "lavender' aroma character as an emergent property of specific mixtures. This was accomplished without the need for chemical standards, reductive aroma models, or calculation of Odor Activity Values, and is broadly applicable to any aroma or flavor.
PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e42693. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0042693 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"The genus Lavandula contains many different species which belong to the 'Labiatae' family that geographically grown in Mediterranean countries (Baytop, 1984). Labiatae are generally known for their multiple pharmacological effects such as anticonvulsant , sedative, antispasmodic, analgesic, antioxidant, local anaesthetic activity and it has been used for medicinal purposes (Lis-Balchin and Hart, 1997; Ghelardini et al., 1999; Hosseinzadeh et al., 2000; Kovatcheva et al., 2001). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lavender oil is a popular essential oil which unfortunately is not produced in any Greek region due to problems reported before from insufficient lavender cultivars or varieties used. The aim of the present study was to create a synthetic Lavandula angustifolia variety from native Greek plants which however present very well adaptation in local fields. Thirty native plants of L. angustifolia from 10 different habitats were quantified and qualified for essential oil. The best two plants of each population were cross pollinated and the seeds came out from this pollination cultivated until new plants test again for oil quantity and quality. This cycle process was being repeated for 6 years until it resulted in a final plant genotype with high amount of essential oil. The essential oil yield reached under laboratory extraction 2.6% (w/fw) while under field steam distillation was 2.3%. The name of this synthetic variety is L. angustifolia var. etherio and the major essential oil compounds are linalool 26.9% and linalyl acetate with 22.8%. L. angustifolia var. etherio was reproduced by tissue culture and 2 ha of this variety are cultivated for 6 years now. The variety showed high transplantation degree, high adaptation, plant viability, rich flower production and high essential oil yield.
"In midday and afternoon higher amounts of esters were observed whilst alcohols are reduced. The average compounds composition from this study supports previous work done before on Lavandula angustifolia essential oil . Boira and Blanquer reported 1496 that no significant differences between individual determinations of samples belonging to the same locality have been observed . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The world demand for lavender essential oil is still in-creasing. It is estimated that over two hundred thousands hectares are being cultivated in Europe and the quality of produced essential oil is important especially for medici-nal and pharmaceutical uses as well as for aromatherapy. We tested and evaluated the quantity and the quality of essential oil produced by one lavender genotype, Lavan-dula angustifolia var etherio, which is well adapted in Greece region, in two different experimental sites (Kato Sholari and Kilkis). The diurnal essential oil yield and oil composition were also tested. The genotype presented an excellent transplantation degree and high survival percent-age in the field. Small differences were recorded in produc-tion of oil between the experimental sites (for Kato Scho-lari was 2.67 ±0.12% and for Kilkis region 2.54 ±0.13%). Differences were recorded in essential oil composition be-tween the experimental sites. The main compounds were linalyl acetate (30.62%), linalool (29.56%), 1,8-cineole (5.18%) and camphor (4.03%) for Kato Sholari. The main compounds for Kilkis were linalyl acetate (26.92%), lina-lool (16.78%), 1,8-cineole (15.55%) and camphor (7.41%). Diurnal differences in oil yield were not observed. In con-trast the major compounds percentage showed differences. The high content of linalyl acetate and linalool and low con-tent of 1,8-cineole and camphor for Kato Scholari resulted in a very pleasant and delightful aroma. The selection of a field for lavender cultivation in a big scale should take into consideration the local conditions. Calcareous, well drain-age light substrates are suggested as the most suitable for lavender oil production. It is also concluded from this study that the best time for lavender harvesting is after midday and during afternoon where the linalyl acetate is higher.
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