Antidepressant-like actions of an AMPA receptor potentiator (LY392098).
ABSTRACT LY392098 is a member of a novel class of biarylpropylsulfonamides that potentiates AMPA receptor-mediated responses both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the effects of LY392098 were evaluated in two "behavioral despair" models (the forced swim and tail suspension tests) commonly used to identify clinically useful antidepressants. LY392098 reduced immobility in the forced swim test in both rats and mice, with a minimum effective dose of 0.5 mg/kg (i.p.) in both species. LY392098 (0.1-10 mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect motor activity of rats, indicating that the ability of this compound to reduce immobility in the forced swim test is unrelated to a motor stimulant action. LY392098 also reduced immobility in the tail suspension test in a dose-dependent manner, with a minimum effective dose of 5 mg/kg (i.p). A non-competitive AMPA antagonist (LY300168) blocked the activity of LY392098 in the forced swim test, but did not affect imipramine-induced reductions in immobility. Thus, AMPA receptor activation appears to be required for the antidepressant-like effect of LY392098, but not imipramine. These findings indicate that biarylpropylsulfonamides, exemplified by LY392098, may represent a novel class of antidepressants.
Article: A kinesin signaling complex mediates the ability of GSK-3beta to affect mood-associated behaviors.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lithium has been the gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BPD) for 60 y. Like lithium, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) inhibitors display both antimanic-like and antidepressant-like effects in some animal models. However, the molecular mechanisms of both lithium and GSK-3 inhibitors remain unclear. Here we show that the GSK-3 inhibitor AR-A014418 regulated alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA)-induced GluR1 and GluR2 internalization via phosphorylation of kinesin light chain 2 (KLC2), the key molecule of the kinesin cargo delivery system. Specifically, AMPA stimulation triggered serine phosphorylation of KLC2 and, subsequently, the dissociation of the GluR1/KLC2 protein complex. This suggests that GSK-3 phosphorylation of KLC2 led to the dissociation of AMPA-containing vesicles from the kinesin cargo system. The peptide TAT-KLCpCDK, a specific inhibitor for KLC2 phosphorylation by GSK-3beta, reduced the formation of long-term depression. Furthermore, the TAT-KLCpCDK peptide showed antimanic-like effects similar to lithium's on amphetamine-induced hyperactivity, a frequently used animal model of mania. It also induced antidepressant-like effects in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, two commonly used animal models of depression. Taken together, the results demonstrated that KLC2 is a cellular target of GSK-3beta capable of regulating synaptic plasticity, particularly AMPA receptor trafficking, as well as mood-associated behaviors in animal models. The kinesin cargo system may provide valuable novel targets for the development of new therapeutics for mood disorders.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2010; 107(25):11573-8. · 9.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neural plasticity is emerging as a fundamental and critical mechanism of neuronal function, which allows the brain to receive information and make the appropriate adaptive responses to subsequent related stimuli. Elucidation of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying neural plasticity is a major goal of neuroscience research, and significant advances have been made in recent years. These mechanisms include regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and also structural alterations of neuronal spines and processes, and even the birth of new neurons in the adult brain. Altered plasticity could thereby contribute to psychiatric and neurological disorders. This article revievi/s the literature demonstrating altered plasticity in response to stress, and evidence that chronic antidepressant treatment can reverse or block the effects, and even induce neural piasiicity-iike responses. Continued elucidation of the mechanisms underlying neural plasticity will lead to novel drug targets that could prove to be effective and rapidly acting therapeutic interventions.Dialogues in clinical neuroscience 06/2004; 6(2):157-69.
Article: Enhancing synaptic plasticity and cellular resilience to develop novel, improved treatments for mood disorders.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is mounting evidence that recurrent mood disorders - once considered "good prognosis diseases"- are, in fact, often very severe and life-threatening illnesses. Furthermore, although mood disorders have traditionally been conceptualized as neurochemical disorders, there is now evidence from a variety of sources demonstrating regional reductions in central nervous system (CNS) volume, as well as reductions in the numbers and/or sizes ofglia and neurons in discrete brain areas. Although the precise cellular mechanisms underlying these morphometric changes remain to be fully elucidated, the data suggest that mood disorders are associated with impairments of synaptic plasticity and cellular resilience. In this context, it is noteworthy that there is increasing preclinical evidence that antidepressants regulate the function of the glutamatergic system. Moreover, although clearly preliminary, the available clinical data suggest that attenuation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) function has antidepressant effects. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have shown that signaling pathways involved in regulating cell survival and cell death are long-term targets for the actions of antidepressant agents. Antidepressants and mood stabilizers indirectly regulate a number of factors involved in cell survival pathways, including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the antiapoptotic protein bcl-2, and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, and may thus bring about some of their delayed long-term beneficial effects via underappreciated neurotrophic effects. There is much promise for the future development of treatments that more directly target molecules in critical CNS signaling pathways regulating synaptic plasticity and cellular resilience. These will represent improved long-term treatments for mood disorders.Dialogues in clinical neuroscience 03/2002; 4(1):73-92.