Synthesis, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding, and antinociceptive properties of 2-exo-2-(2'-substituted 5'-pyridinyl)-7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptanes. Epibatidine analogues.

Chemistry and Life Sciences, Research Triangle Institute, P.O. Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (Impact Factor: 5.48). 07/2001; 44(13):2229-37. DOI: 10.1021/jm0100178
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A convenient, high-yield synthesis of 7-tert-butoxycarbonyl-7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene (5), which involved the addition of tributyltin hydride to 7-tert-butoxycarbonyl-2-p-toluenesulfonyl-7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene (4) followed by elimination of the tributyltin and p-tolylsulfonyl groups using tetrabutylammonium fluoride was developed. The addition of 2-amino-5-iodopyridine to 5 under reductive Heck conditions provided 7-tert-butoxycarbonyl-2-exo-(2'-amino-5'-pyridinyl)-7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane (6). Compound 6 was the key intermediate used to prepare epibatidine analogues where the 2'-chloro group on the pyridine ring was replaced with a fluorine (1b), bromine (1c), iodine (1d), hydroxy (1e), amino (1f), dimethylamino (1g), trifluoromethanesulfonate (1h), and hydrogen (1i) group. (+)- and (-)-Epibatidine and compounds 1b-d and 1i all possess similar binding affinities at the alpha(4)beta(2) nAChR receptors labeled by [(3)H]epibatidine. Compound 1f has affinity similar to nicotine, whereas compounds 1e, 1g, and 1h have much lower affinity. The binding affinity appears to be dependent upon the electronic nature of the substituent. However, other factors are also involved. None of the compounds possesses appreciable affinity for the alpha(7) nAChR labeled by [(125)I]iodo-MLA. With the exception of 1f and 1g, all the epibatidine analogues are full agonists (tail flick test) in producing antinociception after intrathecal injection in mice.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An asymmetric Heck reaction allows desymmetrization of substituted cyclic olefins in high dr and ee. A bisphosphine oxide is uniquely stereoselective for this purpose. Desymmetrization of bicyclic olefins via hydroarylation can also be realized in high ee.
    Chemical Communications 11/2013; · 6.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The binding mode of nicotinic agonists has been thoroughly investigated in the last decades. It is now accepted that the charged amino group is bound by a cation-π interaction to a conserved tryptophan residue, and that the aromatic moiety is projected into a hydrophobic pocket deeply located inside the binding cleft. A hydrogen bond donor/acceptor, maybe a water molecule solvating this receptor subsite, contributes to further stabilize the nicotinic ligands. The position of this water molecule has been established by several X-ray structures of the acetylcholine-binding protein. In this study, we computationally analyzed the role of this water molecule as a putative hydrogen bond donor/acceptor moiety in the agonist binding site of the three most relevant heteromeric (α4β2, α3β4) and homomeric (α7) neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes. Our theoretical investigation made use of epibatidine 1 and deschloroepibatidine 2 as molecular probes, and was then extended to their analogues 3 and 4, which were subsequently synthesized and tested at the three target receptor subtypes. Although the pharmacological data for the new ligands 3 and 4 indicated a reduction of the affinity at the studied nAChRs with respect to reference agonists, a variation of the selectivity profile was clearly evidenced.
    Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design 11/2013; · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In 1992 Daly and co-workers reported the isolation of a new natural product, epibatidine. Future studies showed that epibatidine was an nAChR ligand with analgesic potency 200-400 times greater than that of morphine. However, its potential as a new drug was limited by its toxic side effects, probably resulting from its activity at a number of nAChR subtypes. Epibatidine's unique structure and potent activity made it an ideal lead structure for the development of nAChR ligands with reduced side effects and better nAChR subtype selectivity. This review presents the synthetic methods we have used to synthesize a number of epibatidine agonists, antagonists, and mixed agonists/antagonists to better characterize the α4β2 nAChR pharmacophore and hopefully provide compounds that have potential for treating nicotine addiction.
    Heterocycles 01/2009; 79(1). · 0.91 Impact Factor