"Some nucleoside analogs have been found to be highly inhibitory in animal models9, but ribavirin is the only antiviral agent known to be successful against HTNV infections in clinical trails10. However, the utilization of ribavirin is limited by its myelosuppression and toxicity11, 12, 13. No antiviral agent has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat HFRS5. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arbidol is an immunomodulator that was first developed in Russia. In this study, we report the antiviral activity of arbidol against Hantaan virus (HTNV) in vitro and in vivo.
The antiviral activity of arbidol in vitro was determined by plaque-forming assay, ranging from 0.5 to 8 microg/mL. To investigate whether arbidol has an antiviral effect in vivo, suckling BALB/c mice infected with HTNV were treated with arbidol at 24 h before infection with a 5, 10 or 20 mg.kg(-1).d(-1), once per day, for 10 days. On day 12 and 28 post infection (pi), histopathological changes and viral antigen were detected. On days 4, 8, 12, and 16 pi, the viral load of target organs and serum TNF-alpha levels of arbidol-treated animals were determined.
Arbidol was found to have potent inhibitory activity against HTNV when added in vitro before or after viral infection, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 0.9 and 1.2 microg/mL, respectively. The 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) of arbidol for suckling mice was 78.42 mg.kg(-1).d(-1). Oral administration of arbidol increased both survival rate and mean time to death (MTD). Treatment with arbidol reduced histopathological changes, decreased viral load and viral antigen levels, and modulated the level of serum TNF-alpha.
Arbidol has the ability to elicit protective antiviral activity against HTNV in vivo and in vitro.Acta Pharmacologica Sinica (2009) 30: 1015-1024; doi: 10.1038/aps.2009.53; published online 8 June 2009.
"Treatment side effects are not inconsequential but, in general, not substantially more plentiful or severe in co-infection [78,79]. Traditionally, there have been concerns pertaining to interactions between ribavirin and HIV antiretrovirals [80,81]. As didanosine, stavudine and zidovudine use diminish as safer alternates become available, concerns about nucleoside drug interactions with ribavirin have diminished. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C Viral (HCV) infection in the injection drug user (IDU) population is a major medical concern. Concurrent substance abuse, co-morbid mental health conditions, poor socioeconomic status and a complex treatment protocol that is often incompatible with the life styles of IDUs combine to account for poor uptake and completion of HCV treatment. This article discusses HCV antiviral treatment issues relevant to IDUs chronically infected with this virus. The effect of non-injected substances of abuse on treatment outcome is considered. Priority issues requiring research are discussed.
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