Increased serum levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in alcoholic liver diseases and their expression in liver tissues.
ABSTRACT To study the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases.
The levels of MIF in the sera were estimated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 13 patients with alcoholic hepatitis (ALH), 9 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (ALC) and 26 normal controls. MIF was localized in the liver specimens by immunohistochemistry.
The mean levels of MIF in the sera were significantly higher in ALH and ALC compared with the normal controls (p < 0.05). Serial observations revealed a relationship between serum MIF levels and the serum transaminase levels. MIF was expressed by the hepatocytes and by the infiltrating cells around the site of accumulation of neutrophils and ballooned hepatocytes in ALH.
This is the first report on MIF in human alcoholic liver diseases, and the data suggest that MIF may be related to abnormal cytokine homeostasis in ALH.
Article: A bayesian translational framework for knowledge propagation, discovery, and integration under specific contexts.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The immense corpus of biomedical literature existing today poses challenges in information search and integration. Many links between pieces of knowledge occur or are significant only under certain contexts-rather than under the entire corpus. This study proposes using networks of ontology concepts, linked based on their co-occurrences in annotations of abstracts of biomedical literature and descriptions of experiments, to draw conclusions based on context-specific queries and to better integrate existing knowledge. In particular, a Bayesian network framework is constructed to allow for the linking of related terms from two biomedical ontologies under the queried context concept. Edges in such a Bayesian network allow associations between biomedical concepts to be quantified and inference to be made about the existence of some concepts given prior information about others. This approach could potentially be a powerful inferential tool for context-specific queries, applicable to ontologies in other fields as well.AMIA Summits on Translational Science proceedings AMIA Summit on Translational Science. 01/2012; 2012:25-34.
Article: Hypothesis: Targeted Ikkβ deletion upregulates MIF signaling responsiveness and MHC class II expression in mouse hepatocytes[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Katherine S Koch, Hyam L LeffertHepatocyte Growth Control and Stem Cell Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USAAbstract: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is causally related to the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease but its hepatocellular mechanisms of action are largely unknown. Scattered reports in the literature hint at functional connections between the expression of MIF and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II molecules. Not surprisingly, these relationships have not yet been explored in hepatocytes because MIF and MHC Class II cell surface receptors are commonly expressed by other cell types including various antigen presenting cells of the immune system. On the other hand, mounting evidence suggests that heteromeric MIF receptors share a common molecule with intracellular MHC Class II complexes, viz., CD74, which also serves as the MHC Class II chaperone; and, while it is unclear what cancer-related role(s) MHC Class II receptors might play, increasing evidence suggests that MIF and CD74 are also implicated in the biology of hepatocellular carcinoma. These reports are provocative for two reasons: firstly, Ikkβ Δhep mice carrying hepatocyte-targeted deletions of Ikkβ, an IκB kinase complex subunit required for the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB), have been shown to display heightened susceptibilities to hepatotoxins and chemical hepatocarcinogens; secondly, microarray profiling observations indicate that Ikkβ Δhep hepatocytes constitutively and “ectopically” overexpress genes, particularly CD74, CD44 (a MIF-receptor subunit) and MHC Class II I-A/E β and I-A α chains, and gene families that regulate host immune process and immune defense responses. These findings together suggest that Ikkβ Δhep mice might express functional MIF and MHC Class II receptors, leading to increased hepatocellular sensitivity to MIF signaling as well as to the unusual property of antigen presentation; both functions might contribute to the heightened liver disease phenotypes of Ikkβ Δhep mice. The findings raise questions about the potential existence of cohorts of human patients with genetic abnormalities of Ikkβ that might confer heightened susceptibility to liver disease including hepatocellular carcinoma.Keywords: hepatocellular toxicity, inflammation, immunity, carcinomaHepatic Medicine : Evidence and Research. 01/2010;