Association between job stress and depression among Japanese employees threatened by job loss in a comparison between two complementary job-stress models.
ABSTRACT This study compared the separate effects produced by two complementary stress models--the job demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model--on depression among employees threatened by job loss.
A cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine these associations among 190 male and female employees who responded to a self-administered questionnaire in a small Japanese plant with economic hardship. The employees were engaged in 2 job types--direct assembly line and indirect supportive tasks--and the latter was threatened by job loss because of downsizing. Independent variables were measured by the Japanese versions of Karasek's demand-control questionnaire and Siegrist's effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale.
The employees with indirect supportive tasks (target for downsizing) were more likely to have depressive symptoms than direct assembly-line workers. Job strain, a combination of high demand and low control at work, was more frequent among the latter, while the combination of high effort and low reward was more frequent among the former. After adjustment for work environment factors, low control [odds ratio (OR) 4.7], effort reward imbalance (OR 4.1), and overcommitment (the person characteristic included in the effort-reward imbalance model) (OR 2.6) were independently related to depression. There is some indication that these effects were particularly strong in the subgroup suffering from potential job loss.
This study confirms that the 2 job stress models identify different aspects of stressful job conditions. Moreover, effort-reward imbalance and low control at work are both associated with symptoms of depression.
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ABSTRACT: This paper uses an exogenous increase in income for a specific subgroup to explore the extent to which higher income leads to higher levels of health and well-being. In 1995, the Taiwanese government implemented the Senior Farmer Welfare Benefit Interim Regulation (SFWBIR) that was a pure cash injection to senior farmers. A difference-in-differences (DiD) approach is used on survey data from the Taiwanese Health and Living Status of Elderly in 1989 and 1996 to evaluate the short-term effect of the SFWBIR on self-assessed health, depression, and life satisfaction (LS). Senior manufacturing workers are employed as a comparison group for senior farmers in the natural experiment. This paper provides evidence that the increase in income caused by this pension reform significantly improved the mental health of senior farmers by reducing 1.697 points of the depression scale in DiD and 2.178 points in the robust estimation; however, it had no significant short-term impact on self-assessed health or LS.Review of Social Economy 07/2014; 72(3). DOI:10.1080/00346764.2014.927725
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ABSTRACT: Objective: This study investigated gender-specific interaction between effort-reward imbalance and video display unit (VDU) postural risk factors at work on the incidence of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms in the shoulder-neck, lower back and upper limbs regions. Participants: A cohort of 2,431 VDU users - consisting of white-collar workers in three Canadian public service organizations - was assessed on postural risk factors and effort-reward imbalance at work. Methods: After a mean follow-up time of three years, the six-month incidence proportion of musculoskeletal symptoms in each body region was measured. Interaction was estimated with the attributable proportion of cases due to interaction. Results: For women, two significant attributable proportions due to interaction between effort-reward imbalance and postural risk factors were observed in the shoulder-neck (64%) and upper limbs (57%) regions, while an interaction of 25%, although not significant, was observed in the lower back. No interaction was observed for men. Conclusions: This interaction means that, among women, when effort-reward imbalance and postural risk factors are simultaneously present, the incidence of musculoskeletal symptoms is greater than the sum of effects of the individual factors. Successful interventions on either one of these exposures would thus have the supplemental benefit of preventing cases due to interaction.Work 05/2012; 44(2). DOI:10.3233/WOR-2012-1357 · 0.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the incidence of health problems and the psychosocial work environment in a French occupational cohort. Among the 2062 employees in the North of France who participated in the GERICOTS survey between 1999 and 2004, 1154 subjects who kept the same full-time shift in the same firm during the study period (797 men and 357 women) were included. Job strain was assessed using Karasek's model--the strain profile (high psychological demand and low decision latitude) and the iso-strain profile (strain profile and low social support)--and Siegrist's model, Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) (high effort and low rewards). Perceived health status was assessed using the four dimensions of the Nottingham Health Profile (emotional reactions, sleep, social isolation, pain). The results are given by the odds ratio adjusted for age, occupational category, and size of firm. At baseline, higher prevalence of health problems was found in workers with job strain, e.g., between emotional reactions and iso-strain for men, OR=3.50 (2.19-5.60) and for women, 2.64 (1.39-5.04) or between sleep disorders and ERI for men, OR=2.41 (1.71-3.40) and for women, OR=2.41 (1.39-4.20). Longitudinal analysis showed a significant relationship between incidence of health problems and level of job strain in 1999, e.g., between sleep disorder incidence and strain profile, OR=1.89 (1.16-3.06) and ERI, OR=2.20 (1.43-3.38). These results show a significant relationship between perceived health and job stress in 1999 but also between incidence of health problems between 1999 and 2004 and job strain in 1999.Revue d Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique 09/2011; 59(5):295-304. DOI:10.1016/j.respe.2011.05.003 · 0.66 Impact Factor