Strain rate dependent orthotropic properties of pristine and impulsively loaded porcine temporomandibular joint disk.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to characterize the tensile stress-strain behavior of the porcine temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disk with respect to collagen orientation and strain rate dependency. The apparent elastic modulus, ultimate tensile strength, and strain at maximum stress were measured at three elongation rates (0.5, 50, and 500 mm/min) for dumbbell-shaped samples oriented along either anteroposterior or mediolateral axes of the disks. In order to study the effects of impact-induced fissuring on the mechanical behavior, the same properties were measured along each orientation at an elongation rate of 500 mm/min for disks subjected to impulsive loads of 0.5 N. s. The results suggested a strongly orthotropic nature to the healthy pristine disk. The values for the apparent modulus and ultimate strength were 10-fold higher along the anteroposterior axis (p < or = 0.01), which represented the primary orientation of the collagen fibers. Strain rate dependency was evident for loading along the anteroposterior axis but not along the mediolateral axis. No significant differences in any property were noted between pristine and impulsively loaded disks for either orientation (p > 0.05). The results demonstrated the importance of choosing an orthotropic model for the TMJ disk to conduct finite element modeling, to develop failure criteria, and to construct tissue-engineered replacements. Impact-induced fissuring requires further study to determine if the TMJ disk is orthotropic with respect to fatigue.
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ABSTRACT: This article presents the performance of a fully instrumented test wall reinforced with bearing reinforcement. Bearing reinforcement is an inextensible earth reinforcement. It is composed of a longitudinal member and transverse members. The longitudinal member is a deformed steel bar and the transverse members are a set of equal steel angles. The test wall was 6 m high, 9 m long at the top, 6 m wide at the top, and 12 m long, 21 m wide at the base and was constructed on a hard stratum. The facing panels were made of segmental concrete block which measured 1.50 × 1.50 × 0.14 m in dimension. From the full-scale test results, the bearing stress distribution is a trapezoid shape as generally assumed for the examination of the external stability of MSE walls. The tilt of the bearing reinforcement earth (BRE) wall indicates that the BRE wall behaves as a rigid body. The coefficients of earth pressure decrease with depth and approach the active state at deeper reinforcement level. From the variation in the stiffness factor as a function of depth and lateral earth pressure, the bearing reinforcement has a stiffness factor of K/Ka = 1.7, which is much lower than that of steel grids and metal strips. The lower tension (coefficient of lateral earth pressure) reduces the cross-sectional area of the longitudinal members and hence cost effectiveness. The maximum tension line (possible failure plane) of the BRE wall is bilinear, similarly to the coherent gravity structure hypothesis, which is commonly used for the analysis of inextensible reinforcements. Finally, the suggested method of designing the BRE wall is presented. It has been successfully used to design several BRE walls founded on the hard stratum in different areas in Thailand.Geotextiles and Geomembranes 10/2011; 29(5):514-524. DOI:10.1016/j.geotexmem.2011.05.002 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abnormal mechanical loading may trigger cartilage degeneration associated with osteoarthritis. Tissue response to load has been the subject of several in vitro studies. However, simple stimuli were often applied, not fully mimicking the complex in vivo conditions. Therefore, a rolling/plowing explant test system (RPETS) was developed to replicate the combined in vivo loading patterns. In this work we investigated the mechanical behavior of bovine nasal septum (BNS) cartilage, selected as tissue approximation for experiments with RPETS, under static and dynamic loading. Biphasic material properties were determined and compared with those of other cartilaginous tissues. Furthermore, dynamic loading in plowing modality was performed to determine dynamic response and experimental results were compared with analytical models and Finite Elements (FE) computations. Results showed that BNS cartilage can be modeled as a biphasic material with Young's modulus E=2.03±0.7MPa, aggregate modulus HA=2.35±0.7MPa, Poisson's ratio ν=0.24±0.07, and constant hydraulic permeability k0=3.0±1.3×10(-15)m(4)(Ns)(-1). Furthermore, dynamic analysis showed that plowing induces macroscopic reactions in the tissue, proportionally to the applied loading force. The comparison among analytical, FE analysis and experimental results showed that predicted tangential forces and sample deformation lay in the range of variation of experimental results for one specific experimental condition. In conclusion, mechanical properties of BNS cartilage under both static and dynamic compression were assessed, showing that this tissue behave as a biphasic material and has a viscoelastic response to dynamic forces.Journal of Biomechanics 07/2013; 46(13). DOI:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2013.07.001 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite the importance of sliding contact in diarthrodial joints, only a limited number of studies have addressed this type of problem, with the result that the mechanical behavior of articular cartilage in daily life remains poorly understood. In this paper, a finite element formulation is developed for the sliding contact of biphasic soft tissues. The augmented Lagrangian method is used to enforce the continuity of contact traction and fluid pressure across the contact interface. The resulting method is implemented in the commercial software COMSOL Multiphysics. The accuracy of the new implementation is verified using an example problem of sliding contact between a rigid, impermeable indenter and a cartilage layer for which analytical solutions have been obtained. The new implementation's capability to handle a complex loading regime is verified by modeling plowing tests of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc.Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 08/2012; 134(8):084503. DOI:10.1115/1.4007177 · 1.75 Impact Factor