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    ABSTRACT: Advances in treatment have transformed the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection from a progressive and ultimately fatal disease to one that can be managed effectively by chronic suppressive antiretroviral therapy. The drugs now used to treat HIV infection not only inhibit viral replication but also have effects on cellular metabolism and homeostasis. Of particular interest to cellular immunologists, members of the HIV Protease Inhibitor (PI) class of antiretroviral agents possess intrinsic immunomodulatory and antiapoptotic properties. This review focuses on the development and use of PI together with their impact on HIV disease, immunity, and apoptosis.
    APOPTOSIS 09/2002; 7(4):295-312. DOI:10.1023/A:1016168411221 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although suppression of apoptosis contributes to immune-reconstitution during potent antiretroviral therapy, its relationship with the majors indicators of response to therapy, that is, changes in CD4(+) cell counts and in viral loads (VL), is still debated. We extended our previous study by collecting data on the relationships among apoptosis and immunological and virological parameters during a long-term follow-up of HIV patients with an overall positive response to potent antiretroviral therapy. We report results from 15 patients who completed two years of therapy. In a smaller group of patients, we focused our attention on investigating the specific contribution of the CD8(+) subset in the overall changes in lymphocyte apoptosis, which occur concomitantly with the response to the therapy. Our data, while again confirming that inhibition of PBMC apoptosis is a phenomenon strictly related to a positive response to potent antiretroviral therapy, suggest that CD4(+) cell rescue is not directly dependent on inhibition of CD4(+) cell apoptosis but rather on that of the CD8(+) subset.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 01/2004; 1010(1):560-4. DOI:10.1196/annals.1299.104 · 4.38 Impact Factor