A peptide enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus type-2 (HIV-2) antibodies: an evaluation on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed samples.
ABSTRACT HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections differ in prognosis, and may also require different prevention and/or treatment approaches. Thus, estimating the true prevalence of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections, as well as co-infections, is a critical step in controlling the disease. There are a few commercial ELISA and immunoblot kits, which can differentiate between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. However, some of these assays overestimate the prevalence of dual infection. Hence, it is necessary to develop assays capable of discriminating between the two infections.
To develop a synthetic HIV-2 env based peptide ELISA for the detection of HIV-2 specific antibodies and evaluate its performance on samples from HIV positive individuals previously tested by HIV-1 and HIV-2 PCR and HIV seronegative individuals.
We studied 45 HIV seronegative and 63 HIV infected individuals, including 30 HIV-1 PCR and immunoblot positives, 19 HIV-2 PCR and immunoblot positives, five HIV-1 and two PCR and dual immunoblot positives, two PCR negative but positive for HIV-2 by immunoblot and seven dual immunoblot positives who were only positive for HIV-1 by PCR.
All 24 HIV-2 PCR positive samples tested were positive by the peptide assay. Among 30 HIV-1 PCR and immunoblot positive samples, only one (3.3%) showed an absorbance value above the cut off level. The seven dual positive samples by immunoblot (only positive for HIV-1 by PCR) were negative by the HIV-2 peptide ELISA. There was a 100% concordance between HIV-2 PCR and peptide ELISA. The sensitivity, specificity, and the likelihood ratio for the peptide ELISA were 100,94.9, and 19.5, respectively when compared against the PCR findings.
This ELISA, using a specific immunodominant epitope (11 amino acids) from the transmembrane (gp36) portion of the HIV-2 envelope glycoprotein showed a high concordance with PCR findings. This can be considered as a highly sensitive, specific and economically feasible assay for the discrimination of HIV-1 and HIV-2, and may serve as an alternative to HIV-2 PCR in epidemiological studies.
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ABSTRACT: In this study we have evaluated the concordance between serology, using five commercially available antibody assays designed to discriminate between HIV-1 and HIV-2, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 dual infection. Thirty-seven HIV-1 and HIV-2 dually reactive serum samples from individuals in Guinea-Bissau with total CD4+ T lymphocyte counts ranging from 9 to 948 x 10(6)/liter were included in the study. All samples were tested by Multispot, Pepti-LAV, and Immunocomb HIV-1 and HIV-2 discriminatory antibody assays. Thirty-two of the 37 samples were also tested by a combination of two HIV type-specific antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA; Wellcozyme HIV-1 and Murex HIV-2). Each sample showed dual reactivity in all or any of these assays. A nested PCR based on primer systems in the vif and pol regions of HIV-1 and in the gag and LTR regions of HIV-2 was used to evaluate the serological results. Thirty samples from HIV-1 antibody-positive individuals and 30 samples from HIV-2 antibody-positive individuals were all PCR positive with their corresponding primer systems. The type specificity was 100% for all of the primer systems. The concordance between dual HIV-1 and HIV-2 reactivity on the serological assays and PCR was 77.7% for Multispot, 80% for Pepti-LAV, 81.8% for Immunocomb, and 85.7% for the two ELISAs used in combination. Thus the majority of individuals included in this study appeared to be truly dually infected. The study shows that it is possible, through a careful selection of assays, to reach a high concordance between serological assays and PCR in studying HIV-1 and HIV-2 dual infections.AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 08/1999; 15(11):957-62. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We evaluated a new human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) DNA amplification strategy based on peripheral blood mononuclear cell long PCR (XL PCR) followed by nested PCR amplification. The primers used were located in the highly conserved long terminal repeat and in the pol regions of the genome. Five primer pairs corresponding to different regions of the HIV-2 env gene were used in the nested step. Samples from 42 patients were tested, which yielded positive amplification with at least two primer pairs in 40 (95%) samples. A primer pair (EB2/EB5) located on the V3 region succeeded in amplifying proviral DNA in 40 samples.Journal of Clinical Microbiology 03/1998; 36(3):809-11. · 4.07 Impact Factor
- PCR methods and applications 05/1995; 4(5):S202-16.