Effect of prophylactic ondansetron on postoperative nausea and vomiting after elective craniotomy
ABSTRACT This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after elective craniotomy in adult patients. The authors also tried to discover certain predictors for postcraniotomy nausea and vomiting. We studied 170 ASA physical status I and II patients, aged 15 to 70 years, undergoing elective craniotomy for resecting various intracranial tumors and vascular lesions. A standardized anesthesia technique and postoperative analgesia were used for all patients. Patients were divided into two groups and received either saline placebo (Group 1) or ondansetron 4 mg (Group 2) intravenously at the time of dural closure. Patients were extubated at the end of surgery and episodes of nausea and vomiting were noted for 24 hours postoperatively in the neurosurgical intensive care unit. Demographic data, duration of surgery, and anesthesia and analgesic requirements were comparable in both groups. Overall, a 24-hour incidence of postoperative emesis was significantly reduced in patients who received ondansetron compared with those who received a saline placebo (39% in Group 1 and 11% in Group 2, P = .001). There was a significant reduction in the frequency of emetic episodes and rescue antiemetic requirement in patients treated with ondansetron; however, ondansetron did not significantly reduce the incidence of nausea alone (14% in Group 2 vs 5% in Group 1, P = .065). Prophylactic ondansetron had a favorable influence on PONV outcome measures such as patient satisfaction and number needed to prevent emesis (3.5). Side effects were similar in both groups. We conclude that ondansetron 4 mg given at the time of dural closure is safe and effective in preventing emetic episodes after elective craniotomy in adult patients.
SourceAvailable from: Mayank Gupta[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) pose unique challenges in neurosurgical patients that warrant its study separate from other surgical groups. This prospective, randomized, double-blind study was carried out to compare and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of three antiemetic combinations for PONV prophylaxis following craniotomy. A total of 75 anesthesiologist status I/II patients undergoing elective craniotomy for brain tumors were randomized into three groups, G, O and D, to receive single doses of dexamethasone 8 mg at induction with either granisetron 1 mg, ondansetron 4 mg or normal saline 2 ml at the time of dural closure respectively. Episodes of nausea, retching, vomiting and number of rescue antiemetic (RAE) were noted for 48 h post-operatively. Analysis of variance with post-hoc significance and Chi-square test with fisher exact correction were used for statistical analysis. P <0.05 was considered to be significant and P < 0.001 as highly significant. We found that the incidence and number of vomiting episodes and RAE required were significantly low in Group G and O compared with Group D; P < 0.05. However, incidence of nausea and retching were comparable among all groups. The anti-nausea and anti-retching efficacy of all the three groups was comparable. Single dose administration of granisetron 1 mg or ondansetron 4 mg at the time of dural closure with dexamethasone 8 mg provide an effective and superior prophylaxis against vomiting compared with dexamethasone alone without interfering with post-operative recovery and neurocognitive monitoring and hence important in post-operative neurosurgical care.11/2013; 8(1):72-77. DOI:10.4103/0259-1162.128914
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ABSTRACT: Post-anesthetic care reduces the anesthesia-related postoperative complications and mortality, shortens the length of stay at the postoperative care units and improves patient satisfaction.Revista Colombiana de Anestesiologia 12/2014; 380(1). DOI:10.1016/j.rca.2014.10.008
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ABSTRACT: Background: Considering the important role of pituitary gland in regulating various endocrine axes and its unique anatomical location, various postoperative complications can be anticipated resulting from surgery on pituitary tumors. We examined and categorized the immediate postoperative complications according to various tumor pathologies. Materials and Methods: We carried out a prospective study in 152 consecutive patients and noted various postoperative complications during neurosurgical intensive care unit stay (within 48 hrs of hospital stay) in patients undergoing transsphenoidal removal of pituitary tumors. Results: In our series, various groups showed different postoperative complications out of which, cerebrospinal fluid leak was the commonest followed by diabetes insipidus, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and hematoma at operation site. Conclusion: Various immediate postoperative complications can be anticipated in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery even though, it is considered to be relatively safe.07/2014; 8(3):335-41. DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.136424