Mouse ST6Gal sialyltransferase gene expression during mammary gland lactation.
ABSTRACT The sialyltransferase ST6Gal mediates the biosynthetic addition of sialic acid, via an alpha2,6 linkage, to the nonreducing end of terminal lactosamine structures. Transcription of the murine ST6Gal gene, Siat1, is regulated by the selective use of multiple promoters in a tissue- and development-specific manner. Here we report that Siat1 mRNA expression is dramatically elevated in lactating (relative to virgin) mouse mammary gland. The predominant ST6Gal mRNA species expressed in lactating mammary gland is a heretofore undocumented isoform containing a unique 5'-untranslated region originating from the mouse Siat1 genetic region, now defined as Exon L, residing 549-bp 5' of the previously characterized Exon X(2). Thus, the novel ST6Gal mRNA form initiates transcription from the region designated as p4 and incorporates the unique sequence from Exon L in 5'-juxtaposition to commonly shared sequences encoded on Exon I to Exon VI. In contrast, cells derived from virgin mammary tissue expressed only the housekeeping mRNA form derived from p3, with Exon O sequence preceding Exons I-VI. The Exon L-containing, p4 class of mRNA was also not detected in a survey of eight other mouse tissues. Previous reports have indicated a strong correlation between mammary cancers and elevated ST6Gal expression in rats and in human patients. However, we uncovered neither elevated expression of ST6Gal mRNA nor appearance of p4 class in mouse breast carcinomas experimentally induced by transformation with the polyoma-middle T oncogene. A number of established breast carcinoma cell lines were also examined, with ST6Gal mRNA and activity generally low. Moreover, with the exception of the Shionogi cell line, p4 class of ST6Gal mRNA was not expressed in any of the mouse breast carcinoma specimens examined. Taken together, our data indicate that murine ST6Gal induction during lactation is achieved by de novo recruitment of a normally silent promoter. Furthermore, the data provide no support for elevated Siat1 expression on the mRNA level in association with murine mammary gland carcinogenesis. With the single exception of the Shionogi cell line, the p3 class remains the predominant ST6Gal mRNA expressed in all other murine mammary carcinoma cells examined.
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ABSTRACT: Sialic acids on vertebrate cell surfaces mediate many biological roles. Altered expression of certain sialic acid types or their linkages can have prognostic significance in human cancer. A classic but unexplained example is enhanced alpha2-6-sialylation on N-glycans resulting from overexpression of the Golgi enzyme beta-galactoside:alpha2-6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal-I). Previous data supporting a role for the resulting Sia alpha 2-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc (Sia6LacNAc) structure in tumor biology were based on in vitro studies in transfected carcinoma cells, in which increased Sia6LacNAc on beta1-integrins enhanced their binding to ligands, and stimulated cell motility. Here, we examine for the first time the in vivo role of the ST6Gal-I enzyme in the growth and differentiation of spontaneous mammary cancers in mice transgenic for a mouse mammary tumor virus promoter-driven polyomavirus middle T antigen, a tumor in which beta1-integrin function is important for tumorigenesis and in maintaining the proliferative state of tumor cells. Tumors induced in St6gal1-null animals were more differentiated compared with those in the wild-type background, both by histologic analysis and by protein expression profiles. Furthermore, we show the St6gal1-null tumors have selectively altered expression of genes associated with focal adhesion signaling and have decreased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, a downstream target of beta1-integrins. This first in vivo evidence for a role of ST6Gal-I in tumor progression was confirmed using a novel approach, which conditionally restored St6gal1 in cell lines derived from the null tumors. These findings indicate a role for ST6Gal-I as a mediator of tumor progression, with its expression causing a less differentiated phenotype, via enhanced beta1-integrin function.Cancer Research 02/2008; 68(2):388-94. · 7.86 Impact Factor
Article: Altered eosinophil profile in mice with ST6Gal-1 deficiency: an additional role for ST6Gal-1 generated by the P1 promoter in regulating allergic inflammation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cumulative evidence indicates that the sialyltransferase ST6Gal-1 and the sialyl-glycans, which it constructs, are functionally pleiotropic. Expression of the ST6Gal-1 gene is mediated by six distinct promoter/regulatory regions, and we hypothesized that these promoters may be used differentially to produce ST6Gal-1 for different biologic purposes. To examine this hypothesis, we compared a mouse with a complete deficiency in ST6Gal-1 (Siat1 null) with another mouse that we have created previously with a disruption only in the P1 promoter (Siat1DeltaP1). We noted previously greater neutrophilic inflammation associated with ST6Gal-1 deficiency. Here, we report that ST6Gal-1-deficient mice also have significantly elevated eosinophilic responses. Upon i.p. thioglycollate elicitation, eosinophils accounted for over 20% of the total peritoneal inflammatory cell pool in ST6Gal-1-deficient animals, which was threefold greater than in corresponding wild-type animals. A principal feature of allergic respiratory inflammation is pulmonary eosinophilia, we evaluated the role of ST6Gal-1 in allergic lung inflammation. Using OVA and ABPA experimental models of allergic airways, we showed that ST6Gal-1 deficiency led to greater airway inflammation characterized by excessive airway eosinophilia. The severity of airway inflammation was similar between Siat1DeltaP1 and Siat1 null mice, indicating a role for P1-generated ST6Gal-1 in regulating eosinophilic inflammation. Colony-forming assays suggested greater IL-5-dependent eosinophil progenitor numbers in the marrow of ST6Gal-1-deficient animals. Moreover, allergen provocation of wild-type mice led to a significant reduction in P1-mediated ST6Gal-1 mRNA and accompanied decline in circulatory ST6Gal-1 levels. Taken together, the data implicate ST6Gal-1 as a participant in regulating not only Th1 but also Th2 responses, and ST6Gal-1 deficiency can lead to the development of more severe allergic inflammation with excessive eosinophil production.Journal of leukocyte biology 12/2009; 87(3):457-66. · 4.99 Impact Factor
Article: Altered granulopoietic profile and exaggerated acute neutrophilic inflammation in mice with targeted deficiency in the sialyltransferase ST6Gal I.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Elevation of serum sialic acid and the ST6Gal-1 sialyltransferase is part of the hepatic system inflammatory response, but the contribution of ST6Gal-1 has remained unclear. Hepatic ST6Gal-1 elevation is mediated by P1, 1 of 6 promoters regulating the ST6Gal1 gene. We report that the P1-ablated mouse, Siat1DeltaP1, and a globally ST6Gal-1-deficient mouse had significantly increased peritoneal leukocytosis after intraperitoneal challenge with thioglycollate. Exaggerated peritonitis was accompanied by only a modest increase in neutrophil viability, and transferred bone marrow-derived neutrophils from Siat1DeltaP1 mice migrated to the peritonea of recipients with normal efficiency after thioglycollate challenge. Siat1DeltaP1 mice exhibited 3-fold greater neutrophilia by thioglycollate, greater pools of epinephrine-releasable marginated neutrophils, greater sensitivity to G-CSF, elevated bone marrow CFU-G and proliferative-stage myeloid cells, and a more robust recovery from cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression. Bone marrow leukocytes from Siat1DeltaP1 are indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice in alpha2,6-sialylation, as revealed by the Sambucus nigra lectin, and in the expression of total ST6Gal-1 mRNA. Together, our study demonstrated a role for ST6Gal-1, possibly from extramedullary sources (eg, produced in liver) in regulating inflammation, circulating neutrophil homeostasis, and replenishing granulocyte numbers.Blood 12/2006; 108(10):3397-405. · 9.90 Impact Factor