Study of genetic diversity of eukaryotic picoplankton in different oceanic regions by small-subunit rRNA gene cloning and sequencing.
ABSTRACT Very small eukaryotic organisms (picoeukaryotes) are fundamental components of marine planktonic systems, often accounting for a significant fraction of the biomass and activity in a system. Their identity, however, has remained elusive, since the small cells lack morphological features for identification. We determined the diversity of marine picoeukaryotes by sequencing cloned 18S rRNA genes in five genetic libraries from North Atlantic, Southern Ocean, and Mediterranean Sea surface waters. Picoplankton were obtained by filter size fractionation, a step that excluded most large eukaryotes and recovered most picoeukaryotes. Genetic libraries of eukaryotic ribosomal DNA were screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and at least one clone of each operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was partially sequenced. In general, the phylogenetic diversity in each library was rather great, and each library included many different OTUs and members of very distantly related phylogenetic groups. Of 225 eukaryotic clones, 126 were affiliated with algal classes, especially the Prasinophyceae, the Prymnesiophyceae, the Bacillariophyceae, and the Dinophyceae. A minor fraction (27 clones) was affiliated with clearly heterotrophic organisms, such as ciliates, the chrysomonad Paraphysomonas, cercomonads, and fungi. There were two relatively abundant novel lineages, novel stramenopiles (53 clones) and novel alveolates (19 clones). These lineages are very different from any organism that has been isolated, suggesting that there are previously unknown picoeukaryotes. Prasinophytes and novel stramenopile clones were very abundant in all of the libraries analyzed. These findings underscore the importance of attempts to grow the small eukaryotic plankton in pure culture.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Carlos Pedrós-Alió, Mar 26, 2014
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Article: Study of genetic diversity of eukaryotic picoplankton in different oceanic regions by small-subunit rRNA gene cloning and sequencing.
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ABSTRACT: Investigation of phytoplankton biodiversity, ecology, and biogeography is crucial for understanding marine ecosystems. Research is often carried out on the basis of microscopic observations, but due to the limitations of this approach regarding detection and identification of picophytoplankton (0.2–2 μm) and nanophytoplankton (2–20 μm), these investigations are mainly focused on the microphytoplankton (20–200 μm). In the last decades, various methods based on optical and molecular biological approaches have evolved which enable a more rapid and convenient analysis of phytoplankton samples and a more detailed assessment of small phytoplankton. In this study, a selection of these methods (in situ fluorescence, flow cytometry, genetic fingerprinting, and DNA microarray) was placed in complement to light microscopy and HPLC-based pigment analysis to investigate both biomass distribution and community structure of phytoplankton. As far as possible, the size classes were analyzed separately. Investigations were carried out on six cruises in the German Bight in 2010 and 2011 to analyze both spatial and seasonal variability.Journal of Sea Research 02/2015; 99. DOI:10.1016/j.seares.2015.02.005 · 1.86 Impact Factor
Fisheries Science 09/2014; 80(5):1001-1007. DOI:10.1007/s12562-014-0765-3 · 0.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phytoplanktons are organisms with a very high diversities and global distribution in different habitats. The high distribution of phytoplankton is due to ecological flexibility and their ability to tolerate different climatic conditions and environmental stress. Phytoplankton is the most sensitive biological indicators of water resources. The purpose of this study was to identify the phytoplankton species with emphasis on DNA bar-coding method. The study of phytoplankton variation and the identification of their species composition can provide useful information about the water quality. In this research project, a clone library of the ribosomal small subunit RNA gene (18S rDNA) in the nuclear genome was constructed by PCR using A and SSU-inR1 primers, and then, after examining the clones, selected clones were sequenced. Eleven analyzed sequences were identified correctly and characterized by a similarity search of the GenBank database using BLAST (NCBI). In this study, we revealed a wide range of taxonomic groups in the Alveolata (Ciliphora and Dinophyceae), Stramenopiles (Bacillariophyta and Bicosoecida), Rhodophyta and Haptophyceae. Moreover, we found species of fungi and Metazoa (Arthropoda). Most of the sequences were previously unknown but could still be assigned to important marine phyla. Clone library of 18S rDNA is an accurate method to identify marine specimens and it is recommended as an efficient method for phylogenic studies in marine environments. There seems to be a high diversity and abundance of small eukaryotes in the marine regions of Persian Gulf.08/2014; 6(4):296-302.