Physical Activity and Television Watching in Relation to Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Men

Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Archives of Internal Medicine (Impact Factor: 17.33). 06/2001; 161(12):1542-8. DOI: 10.1001/archinte.161.12.1542
Source: PubMed


Television (TV) watching, a major sedentary behavior in the United States, has been associated with obesity. We hypothesized that prolonged TV watching may increase risk for type 2 diabetes.
In 1986, 37 918 men aged 40 to 75 years and free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer completed a detailed physical activity questionnaire. Starting from 1988, participants reported their average weekly time spent watching TV on biennial questionnaires.
A total of 1058 cases of type 2 diabetes were diagnosed during 10 years (347 040 person-years) of follow-up. After adjustment for age, smoking, alcohol use, and other covariates, the relative risks (RRs) for type 2 diabetes across increasing quintiles of metabolic equivalent hours (MET-hours) per week were 1.00, 0.78, 0.65, 0.58, and 0.51 (P for trend, <.001). Time spent watching TV was significantly associated with higher risk for diabetes. After adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity levels, and other covariates, the RRs of diabetes across categories of average hours spent watching TV per week (0-1, 2-10, 11-20, 21-40, and >40) were 1.00, 1.66, 1.64, 2.16, and 2.87, respectively (P for trend, <.001). This association was somewhat attenuated after adjustment for body mass index, but a significant positive gradient persisted (RR comparing extreme categories, 2.31; P for trend,.01).
Increasing physical activity is associated with a significant reduction in risk for diabetes, whereas a sedentary lifestyle indicated by prolonged TV watching is directly related to risk. Our findings suggest the importance of reducing sedentary behavior in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

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    • "Moreover, recent studies have shown that even people who practice some kind of physical activity could also be on health risk because of sedentary habits (Owen et al., 2011; Thorp et al., 2011), which refer to different behaviours associated to be sitting (as watching TV or working on the computer) (Owen et al., 2010). For example, one longitudinal study that controlled the amount of time spent on watching TV over a eight-year period found that the sedentary behaviour was directly associated to higher risk for type 2 diabetes in comparison to those who spent less time watching TV (Hu et al., 2001). Similarly, another study compared the amount of hours that women spent sitting or lying down during the day and their relative risk of cardiovascular disease, showing that those types of behaviours were significantly associated with risk of cardiovascular events (Manson et al., 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to create a “physical activity break” (PAB) satisfaction scale, for this, the RATER dimensions of the service quality model SERVQUAL were used. Design/methodology/approach – The study opted for a correlational study and used a psychometric approach. Totally, 69 administrative workers at a public university of Chile participated in a physical activity programme and completed a satisfaction questionnaire including sections adapted from the SERVQUAL model. Findings – The study created a PAB satisfaction scale, which shows appropriate psychometric indicators. Furthermore, satisfaction scores were positively correlated with perceived psychological and physical benefits, attendance motivation and intention to participate again in future programmes. Research limitations/implications – Because measures perceived psychological and physical benefits, attendance motivation and intention to participate again in future programmes are measured by single items, futures studies should evaluate association of the satisfaction scale with more consistent measures, as well as include anthropometric measures (e.g. body mass index and weight). Practical implications – This study created a PAB satisfaction scale, using appropriate psychometric indicators which enable the evaluation of the quality of these programmes from the participant’s perspective. Originality/value – Despite the popularity of PAB programmes, to the authors knowledge, up to day there is no way of evaluating these programmes from the participant’s perspective.
    International Journal of Workplace Health Management 01/2015; 8(1):34 - 45. DOI:10.1108/IJWHM-05-2014-0018
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    • "A growing body of evidence suggests that sedentary behavior (time spent sitting or reclining) is independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality [1–4], cardiovascular disease [5, 6], type 2 diabetes [7, 8], and some cancers [9]. Sedentary behavior appears to have physiological consequences, distinct from the effects associated with an absence of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, that may further contribute to chronic disease risk [10, 11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Most sedentary behavior measures focus on occupational or leisure-time sitting. Our aim was to develop a comprehensive measure of adult sedentary behavior and establish its measurement properties. Method The SIT-Q was developed through expert review (n???=???7), cognitive interviewing (n???=???11) and pilot testing (n???=???34). A convenience sample of 82 adults from Calgary, Alberta, Canada, participated in the measurement property study. Test-retest reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) comparing two administrations of the SIT-Q conducted one month apart. Convergent validity was established using Spearman???s rho, by comparing the SIT-Q estimates of sedentary behaviour with values derived from a 7-Day Activity Diary. Results The SIT-Q exhibited good face validity and acceptability during pilot testing. Within the measurement property study, the ICCs for test-retest reliability ranged from 0.31 for leisure-time computer use to 0.86 for occupational sitting. Total daily sitting demonstrated substantial correlation (ICC???=???0.65, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.78). In terms of convergent validity, correlations varied from 0.19 for sitting during meals to 0.76 for occupational sitting. For total daily sitting, estimates derived from the SIT-Q and 7 Day Activity Diaries were moderately correlated (?????=???0.53, p???<???0.01). Conclusion The SIT-Q has acceptable measurement properties for use in epidemiologic studies.
    BMC Public Health 09/2014; 14(1):899. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-899 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "This disease results from the interaction of genetic predispositions such as defective β-cell function and environmental factors such as insulin resistance, which is influenced by lifestyle and the degree of physical activity. Because obesity increases the risk of illness and premature mortality (Barlow et al., 1995; Hu et al., 2001), the prevention or abatement of obesity is important. "
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    ABSTRACT: Rice koji is considered a readily accessible functional food that may have health-promoting effects. We investigated whether white, yellow, and red koji have the anti-obesity effect in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), which is a model for obesity. Mice were fed HFD containing 10% (w/w) of rice koji powder or steamed rice for 4 weeks. Weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue, and total adipose tissue weight were significantly lower in all rice koji groups than in the HFD-rice group after 4 weeks. Feed efficiency was significantly reduced in the yellow koji group. Blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the white and red koji groups with HOMA-R and leptin levels being reduced in the white koji group. White and red koji increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 protein expression in L6 myotube cells. These results showed that all rice koji have the anti-obesity or anti-diabetes effects although the mechanisms may differ depending on the type of rice koji consumed.
    PeerJ 08/2014; 2(1):e540. DOI:10.7717/peerj.540 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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