Local interferon-gamma levels during respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infection are associated with disease severity
ABSTRACT To investigate the role of cell-mediated immunity during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-10 levels in nasopharyngeal secretions were measured in infants with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) caused by RSV. A novel technique was used to measure in vivo cytokine levels in nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs). Cytokine levels in the NPAs of 17 mechanically ventilated infants and 43 nonventilated hospitalized infants were compared. As expected, mechanically ventilated infants were significantly younger than nonventilated infants (7 vs. 14 weeks). IFN-gamma levels were above the limit of detection in the NPAs of 3 (18%) mechanically ventilated infants and in the NPAs of 26 (60%) nonventilated infants. IL-10 levels in the NPAs of mechanically ventilated and nonventilated infants were comparable. It is hypothesized that maturation-related mechanisms have a key role in the development of RSV LRTI that results in mechanical ventilation.
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ABSTRACT: The association between vitamin D status and susceptibility to acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) was studied in young Canadian children. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured in patients aged 1-25 months admitted to hospital with uncomplicated ALRI (primarily viral bronchiolitis) as well as in healthy, similarly aged patients without a history of hospitalization for ALRI (controls). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were similar among cases and controls (77.0 versus 77.2 nmol l(-1); P=0.960), and there was no case-control difference in the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency using two thresholds (<40 nmol l(-1): 4.7 versus 1.5%, P=0.365; <80 nmol l(-1): 51.6 versus 56.9%, P=0.598). Vitamin D status was not associated with the risk of hospitalization for ALRI in this population.European journal of clinical nutrition 10/2007; 63(2):297-9. DOI:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602946 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bronchiolitis is a common early childhood illness and an important cause of morbidity, it is the number one cause of hospitalization among US infants. Bronchiolitis is also an active area of research, and recent studies have advanced our understanding of this illness. Although it has long been the conventional wisdom that the infectious etiology of bronchiolitis does not affect outcomes, a growing number of studies have linked specific pathogens of bronchiolitis (e.g., rhinovirus) to short- and long-term outcomes, such as future risk of developing asthma. The authors review the advent of molecular diagnostic techniques that have demonstrated diverse pathogens in bronchiolitis, and they review recent studies on the complex link between infectious pathogens of bronchiolitis and the development of childhood asthma.Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy 04/2014; DOI:10.1586/14787210.2014.906901 · 3.06 Impact Factor