The effects of 2-week ingestion of (--)-hydroxycitrate and (--)-hydroxycitrate combined with medium-chain triglycerides on satiety, fat oxidation, energy expenditure and body weight.
ABSTRACT Assessment of the effect of 2-week supplementation with (--)-hydroxycitrate (HCA) and HCA combined with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) on satiety, fat oxidation, energy expenditure (EE) and body weight (BW) loss.
Three intervention periods of 2 weeks separated by washout periods of 4 weeks. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised and cross-over design.
Eleven overweight male subjects (mean+/-s.d.; age, 47+/-16 y; body mass index, 27.4 +/- 8.2 kg/m(2)).
Subjects consumed three self-selected meals and four iso-energetic (420 kJ) snacks daily with either no supplementation (PLA), 500 mg HCA (HCA) or 500 mg HCA and 3 g MCT (HCA+MCT). Each intervention ended with a 36 h stay in the respiration chamber.
There was a significant BW loss during the 2 weeks of intervention (PLA, -1.0 +/- 0.4 kg, P<0.05; HCA, -1.5 +/- 0.5 kg, P<0.01; HCA+MCT, -1.3 +/- 0.2 kg, P<0.001), but this reduction was not different between treatments. 24 h EE (PLA, 11.8 +/- 0.2 MJ; HCA, 11.7 +/- 0.1 MJ; HCA+MCT, 11.5 +/- 0.1 MJ), 24 h RQ (0.85 +/- 0.00 in all treatments) and the area under the curve of the appetite-related parameters were not different between treatments.
Two-week supplementation with HCA and HCA combined with MCT did not result in increased satiety, fat oxidation, 24 h EE or BW loss compared to PLA, in subjects losing BW.
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ABSTRACT: Information about anthropometric, dietary variables and serum cholesterol was collected in the Zutphen Study in 1960, 1965, and 1970. Relationships among those variables were analyzed both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. In all 3 yr significant correlations were observed between body weight and serum cholesterol. Serum cholesterol was also significantly inversely related to energy intake per kg body weight in all 3 yr after both univariate and multivariate analyses. The percentage energy intake from alcohol was significantly positively related to serum cholesterol in all 3 yr after univariate analyses and in 2 of the 3 yr after multivariate analyses. Changes in body weight during 5 and 10 yr of follow-up were strongly positively related to changes in serum cholesterol during those periods. Multivariate analyses showed that a change of 1 kg in body weight was accompanied by a change in serum cholesterol of 2 mg/dl. Changes in dietary cholesterol per 1000 kcal were weakly significantly related to changes in serum cholesterol during 10 yr of follow-up.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11/1983; 38(4):591-8. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that eating control and physical activity help maintain weight and waist circumference after a very-low-calorie diet. A 12 week weight reduction (WR) phase, followed by a 40 week weight maintenance (WM) phase. For the latter, the subjects were randomised into a no-exercise group and one of two groups with a walking program. Eighty-five obese (body mass index 29-46, mean 34), clinically healthy, premenopausal women. Body weight, waist circumference, body composition, the measuring restrained eating, disinhibition and hunger, measured by Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), binge eating measured by the Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh (BITE), and number of daily steps measured by a pedometer. The change (delta) in weight during WM was predicted by the following regression: deltaweight (kg)=5.23+0.45 deltaweight during WR+0.66 disinhibition during WM0.00039 daily steps during WM, r2=0.46, SEE 3.3 kg. The change in waist circumference during WM was predicted as deltawaist (cm)=0.76+0.75 deltaweight during WM0.00021 daily steps during WM, r2=0.67, SEE 2.6 cm. Exercise group assignment did not affect the changes in weight, waist circumference, or indicators of eating control during the maintenance program. Control of overeating, as indicated by a lower disinhibition factor of the TFEQ, and daily physical activity, as indicated by a higher number of daily steps, were positive and independent predictors of weight maintenance after a very-low-calorie diet. The number of daily steps showed an independent association with change in waist circumference during weight maintenance, even after adjustment for weight change.International Journal of Obesity 03/1999; 23(2):203-10. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The increasingly recognized role of the indirect pathway (glycolysis followed by hepatic gluconeogenesis) for glucose utilization and glycogen synthesis by the liver led us to administer 3-mercaptopicolinate (3MP), an inhibitor of phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase, in an attempt to assess the role of liver glycogen or hexose-phosphates in the food-intake reducing effects of (-)hydroxy-citrate. Administration of (-)hydroxy-citrate increased hepatic glycogen content in i.v. glucose refed rats. Using the glucuronide probe technique, the mechanism of increased glycogen deposition was shown to be prolongation of indirect pathway (recycled) input. Daily (-)hydroxy-citrate significantly reduced food intake (from 12.0 +/- 2.3 to 6.4 +/- 3.6 g/day, p < 0.05) and had no chronic effect on hepatic glycogen content in rats trained to a single daily meal (meal-fed). Administration of 3MP completely suppressed hepatic glycogen synthesis (< 0.5 mg/g) when given alone or with (-)hydroxy-citrate. Isotopic studies confirmed inhibition of the indirect pathway of UDP-glucose synthesis. 3MP accentuated rather than prevented the (-)hydroxy-citrate reduction in food intake in meal-fed rats (intake 2.7 +/- 2.4 g/day). When given alone, 3MP also reduced intake (6.1 +/- 3.6 g/day). Severe hypoglycemia was observed (glucose < 20 mg/dl) in several meal-fed rats given repeated daily doses of 3MP, yet food intake did not occur despite food availability. Neither 3MP nor (-)hydroxy-citrate had any effects when given after the daily meal. We conclude that the role of the indirect glycogen synthesis pathway must be considered in any theory of regulation of food intake by hepatic metabolites and that, if the effects of these metabolic inhibitors can be shown not to be toxic or non-specific, neither hepatic glycogen nor hexose-phosphates are involved in the food-intake suppressive effects of (-)hydroxycitrate.Life Sciences 02/1993; 53(24):1833-45. · 2.56 Impact Factor