Etanercept, a recombinant tumor necrosis factor receptor (p75)-Fc fusion protein competitively inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). Etanercept has been successfully used in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, where it reduces pain and inflammation. Because locally produced proinflammatory cytokines play a role in pain after nerve injury, we investigated whether etanercept can reduce pain and hyperalgesia in an animal model of painful neuropathy, the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. C57BL/6 mice received etanercept or sham treatment by local near-nerve injection to the injured nerve or by systemic application. Treatment with etanercept reduced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia significantly in both modes of application. The effect of etanercept was present in animals that were treated from the time of surgery and in those that were treated from day 6, when hyperalgesia was already present. These results suggest the potential of etanercept as a treatment option for patients with neuropathic pain.
"The procedure described by Bennett and Xie (1988) and Sommer et al. (2001) was used as a model of neuropathic pain. Mice were anesthetized under ketamine + xylazine (100 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally); a linear skin incision was made along the lateral surface of the biceps femoris and forceps were inserted into the core of the muscle to split the muscle fibers and expose the sciatic nerve. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rodents can recognize pain-related responses in conspecifics. Therefore, cohabitation with a conspecific animal with chronic pain can potentially promote a stressful situation, which can trigger behavioral changes such as anxiety and depression and alter nociceptive responses. In this study we investigated the effect of cohabitation with a mouse undergoing sciatic nerve constriction (neuropathic pain model). The cagemates were evaluated for nociception (writhing test), anxiety (elevated plus-maze and open field tests), depression (forced swim, tail suspension, and sucrose preference tests), and corticosterone levels. Male Swiss mice were housed in pairs for 14 days, and then divided into three groups: cagemate nerve constriction, in which one animal of each pair was subjected to constriction of the sciatic nerve; cagemate sham, in which one animal from each pair was subjected to the same surgery but without constriction; and control, in which animals were not subjected to any surgical procedure. After 14 days, the cagemates were evaluated using behavioral tests. Social interaction with a conspecific undergoing constriction of the sciatic nerve induced hypernociception and increased anxiety-related responses, whereas in depression tests inconclusive responses and no changes in corticosterone levels were found. In conclusion, cohabitation with suffering conspecifics induces changes in nociceptive responses, as well as in affective responses including anxiety.
"On the other hand, Schäfers and co-workers showed that the treatment with Eta starting on day 1 or 7 after the spinal nerve ligation was ineffective in attenuating the paw mechanical hyperalgesia (Schafers et al., 2003). However, the same group observed in a previous study that Eta reduced the hyperalgesia 6 days after the sciatic constriction injury in the mouse (Sommer et al., 2001). The effect of Eta in orofacial mechanical hyperalgesia in our study was particularly interesting. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the involvement of tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in orofacial thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia induced by an inflammatory stimulus or by chronic constriction of the infraorbital nerve (CION) using etanercept (Eta), a TNF-receptor fusion protein that inhibits TNF-α action.
Animals were treated with Eta (0.5 and 5.0 mg/kg, s.c.) or dexamethasone (Dex, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg, s.c.) and orofacial thermal (cold and heat) and mechanical hyperalgesia induced by an inflammatory stimulus (carrageenan, Cg 50 and 100 μg/lip) or by chronic CION, a model of neuropathic pain in the orofacial region was evaluated. Treatments with Dex or Eta were carried out before Cg or before or after CION.
Eta or Dex abolished inflammatory thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. Also, each drug, when given at the day of the surgery and the subsequent day, was effective to abolish thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia induced by CION, assessed on day 4 and on day 13 after the surgery, respectively. However, Eta, but not Dex, given after the CION, abolished thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia and reduced TNF-α level in the trigeminal ganglion.
These results suggest that TNF-α has an important role in cold, heat and mechanical hyperalgesia induced by inflammation or neuropathy in the orofacial region and this may contribute for the establishment of new therapeutic strategies to treat orofacial pain.
European journal of pain (London, England) 08/2014; 18(7). DOI:10.1002/j.1532-2149.2013.00441.x · 2.93 Impact Factor
"In animal models, the administration of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β
induces pain behavior (31), and treatment with
anti-inflammatory cytokines or proinflammatory cytokine inhibitors has been shown to
reduce pain (32,33). Human studies show a possible pathogenic role of cytokines in pain. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pain is a common symptom in patients with cancer, including those with head and neck cancer (HNC). While studies suggest an association between chronic inflammation and pain, levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), have not been correlated with pain in HNC patients who are not currently undergoing anticancer treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between these inflammatory markers and perceived pain in HNC patients prior to anticancer therapy. The study group consisted of 127 HNC patients and 9 healthy controls. Pain was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and serum levels of CRP and TNF-α were determined using the particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and ELISA techniques, respectively. Patients experiencing pain had significantly higher levels of CRP (P<0.01) and TNF-α (P<0.05) compared with controls and with patients reporting no pain. There were significantly positive associations between pain, CRP level, and tumor stage. This is the first study to report a positive association between perceived pain and CRP in HNC patients at the time of diagnosis. The current findings suggest important associations between pain and inflammatory processes in HNC patients, with potential implications for future treatment strategies.
Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 07/2014; 47(7):600-604. DOI:10.1590/1414-431X20143599 · 1.01 Impact Factor
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