Selective deficiency of alpha-dystroglycan in Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy.
ABSTRACT Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe dystrophic muscle wasting from birth or early infancy with structural brain abnormalities. The gene for FCMD is located on chromosome 9q31, and encodes a novel protein named fukutin. The function of fukutin is not known yet, but is suggested to be an enzyme that modifies the cell-surface glycoprotein or glycolipids.
To elucidate the roles of fukutin gene mutation in skeletal and cardiac muscles and brain.
Immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses were performed in skeletal and cardiac muscles and brain tissue samples from patients with FCMD and control subjects.
The authors found a selective deficiency of highly glycosylated alpha-dystroglycan, but not beta-dystroglycan, on the surface membrane of skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers in patients with FCMD. Immunoblot analyses also showed no immunoreactive band for alpha-dystroglycan, but were positive for beta-dystroglycan in FCMD in skeletal and cardiac muscles.
The current findings suggest a critical role for fukutin gene mutation in the loss or modification of glycosylation of the extracellular peripheral membrane protein, alpha-dystroglycan, which may cause a crucial disruption of the transmembranous molecular linkage of muscle fibers in patients with FCMD.
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ABSTRACT: To identify gene mutations in patients with dystroglycanopathy and prove pathogenicity of those mutations using an in vitro cell assay. We performed whole-exome sequencing on 20 patients, who were previously diagnosed with dystroglycanopathy by immunohistochemistry and/or Western blot analysis. We also evaluated pathogenicity of identified mutations for phenotypic recovery in a DAG1-knockout haploid human cell line transfected with mutated DAG1 complementary DNA. Using exome sequencing, we identified compound heterozygous missense mutations in DAG1 in a patient with asymptomatic hyperCKemia and pathologically mild muscular dystrophy. Both mutations were in the N-terminal region of α-dystroglycan and affected its glycosylation. Mutated DAG1 complementary DNAs failed to rescue the phenotype in DAG1-knockout cells, suggesting that these are pathogenic mutations. Novel mutations in DAG1 are associated with asymptomatic hyperCKemia with hypoglycosylation of α-dystroglycan. The combination of exome sequencing and a phenotype-rescue experiment on a gene-knockout haploid cell line represents a powerful tool for evaluation of these pathogenic mutations. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.Neurology 12/2014; 84(3). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001162 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: α-Dystroglycanopathy (α-DGP) is a group of muscular dystrophy characterized by abnormal glycosylation of α-dystroglycan (α-DG), including Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), muscle-eye-brain disease, Walker-Warburg syndrome, and congenital muscular dystrophy type 1D (MDC1D), etc. LARGE, the causative gene for MDC1D, encodes a glycosyltransferase to form [-3Xyl-α1,3GlcAβ1-] polymer in the terminal end of the post-phosphoryl moiety, which is essential for α-DG function. It has been proposed that LARGE possesses the great potential to rescue glycosylation defects in α-DGPs regardless of causative genes. However, the in vivo therapeutic benefit of using LARGE activity is controversial. To explore the conditions needed for successful LARGE gene therapy, here we used Large-deficient and fukutin-deficient mouse models for MDC1D and FCMD, respectively. Myofibre-selective LARGE expression via systemic adeno-associated viral gene transfer ameliorated dystrophic pathology of Large-deficient mice even when intervention occurred after disease manifestation. However, the same strategy failed to ameliorate the dystrophic phenotype of fukutin-conditional knockout mice. Furthermore, forced expression of Large in fukutin-deficient embryonic stem cells also failed to recover α-DG glycosylation, however coexpression with fukutin strongly enhanced α-DG glycosylation. Together, our data demonstrated that fukutin is required for LARGE-dependent rescue of α-DG glycosylation, and thus suggesting new directions for LARGE-utilizing therapy targeted to myofibres.Scientific Reports 02/2015; 5:8316. DOI:10.1038/srep08316 · 5.08 Impact Factor