Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of clonidine in hyperactive children with mental retardation.
ABSTRACT A 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of oral clonidine in three fixed doses (4, 6, and 8 mcg/kg/day) using a crossover design was conducted with 10 children who had hyperkinetic disorder (mean age 7.6 years +/-.54). All had comorbid mental retardation. Both parents' ratings on the Parent Symptom Questionnaire and clinicians' ratings on the Hillside Behaviour Rating Scale showed a marked dose-related response to clonidine in hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Drowsiness was a common side effect of clonidine. It wore off by the 2nd to 4th week in most cases. Thus, clonidine is a safe and effective medication in young hyperkinetic children with comorbid mental retardation.
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ABSTRACT: To meta-analyze the efficacy and safety of α-2 agonists in pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and PsycINFO until May 2013 for randomized trials comparing α-2 agonists with placebo in ADHD youth. Primary outcome was reduction in overall ADHD symptoms. Secondary outcomes included hyperactivity/impulsivity, inattentiveness, oppositional defiant disorder symptoms (ODD symptoms), all-cause discontinuation, specific-cause discontinuation, and adverse effects. Standardized mean differences (SMD), relative risk (RR), and number-needed-to-treat/number-needed-to-harm (NNT/NNH) were calculated. Data were analyzed separately in monotherapy and as add-on to psychostimulants. Altogether, 12 studies (N = 2,276) were included. Across 9 studies (n = 1,550), α-2 agonist monotherapy significantly reduced overall ADHD symptoms (SMD = -0.59, p < .00001), hyperactivity/impulsivity (SMD = -0.56, p < .00001), inattention (SMD = -0.57, p < .00001), and ODD symptoms (SMD = -0.44, p = .0004). Similarly, α-2 agonist add-on treatment (3 studies, n = 726) significantly reduced overall ADHD symptoms (SMD = -0.36, p < .0001), hyperactivity/impulsivity (SMD = -0.33, p < .0001), and inattention (SMD = -0.34, p < .0001), but effect sizes were lower than in monotherapy trials (p = .03-0.04). As monotherapy, α-2 agonists had lower all-cause (RR = 0.70, p = .01, NNT = 10) and inefficacy-related (RR = 0.39, p < .0001) discontinuations than did placebo; however, intolerability-related discontinuation was similar, despite significantly more common fatigue (NNH = 10), sedation (NNH = 17), and somnolence (NNH = 4) and significantly greater hypotensive (clonidine-IR), bradycardic (clonidine-IR), and QTc prolonging (guanfacine-XR) effects. Added to stimulants, α-2 agonists had all-cause and specific-cause discontinuations that were comparable to those of placebo, but somnolence (NNH = 10) was more common, and hypotensive and bradycardic effects (clonidine-XR and guanfacine-XR) were greater than with placebo. α-2 Agonist monotherapy and, possibly to a lesser extent, co-treatment, are significantly superior to placebo for overall, hyperactivity, and inattentive ADHD symptoms. Efficacy advantages need to be balanced against fatigue, somnolence/sedation, hypotension, bradycardia, and possibly QTc prolongation.Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 02/2014; 53(2):153-73. · 6.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is associated with behavior that limits functioning, including distractibility, hyperactivity, impulsivity, hyperarousal, anxiety, mood dysregulation, and aggression. Medication response and side effect data were reviewed retrospectively for 257 patients (age 14 ± 11 years, range 4-60 years, 203 M, 54 F) attending an FXS clinic. Treatment success rates were defined as the percentage of positive response in the form of documented clinical report of improvement in the behavior(s) being targeted over at least a 6-month period on the medication, without side effects requiring medication discontinuance, while failures were defined as discontinuance of medication due to lack of clinical effectiveness or side effects. Success rate for treatment of targeted behaviors with trials of individual medications was 55% for stimulants, 53% for antidepressants, 62% for alpha2-agonists, and 54% for antipsychotics. With sequential trials of different medications in the same class, success rate improved to 73-77%. Side effect-related failures were highest for antipsychotics. Systematic psychopharmacologic intervention targeted to behavioral symptoms appears helpful in the majority of patients with FXS.International Journal of Pediatrics 01/2012; 2012:843016.