Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of clonidine in hyperactive children with mental retardation.
ABSTRACT A 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of oral clonidine in three fixed doses (4, 6, and 8 mcg/kg/day) using a crossover design was conducted with 10 children who had hyperkinetic disorder (mean age 7.6 years +/-.54). All had comorbid mental retardation. Both parents' ratings on the Parent Symptom Questionnaire and clinicians' ratings on the Hillside Behaviour Rating Scale showed a marked dose-related response to clonidine in hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Drowsiness was a common side effect of clonidine. It wore off by the 2nd to 4th week in most cases. Thus, clonidine is a safe and effective medication in young hyperkinetic children with comorbid mental retardation.
SourceAvailable from: Vivek Agarwal
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ABSTRACT: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent disorder among school age children. Once understood as a common and mild disorder restricted to childhood, ADHD is now recognized as an important condition because of its poor outcome and strong association with comorbidities. Pervasive disorders and cognitive deficits, as well as learning disorders, are complex conditions and their co-ocurrence with ADHD is commonly associated with marked impairments and disabilities. These patients need more attention and personalized treatment strategies. The aim of this article is to establish a discussion about these differential diagnoses, which are a challenge in clinical practice.Jornal brasileiro de psiquiatria 12/2006; 56:14-18.
Article: The Pharmacological Management of Oppositional Behaviour, Conduct Problems, and Aggression in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Part 1: Psychostimulants, Alpha-2 Agonists, and Atomoxetine.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression. These symptoms vary in severity, and may be related to a comorbid diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Critical evaluation of the efficacy of ADHD medications may guide the clinician regarding the usefulness of medications for these symptoms. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine for oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, ODD, and CD. The quality of evidence for medications was rated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Two systematic reviews and 20 randomized controlled trials were included. There is high-quality evidence that psychostimulants have a moderate-to-large effect on oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. There is very-low-quality evidence that clonidine has a small effect on oppositional behaviour and conduct problems in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. There is moderate-quality evidence that guanfacine has a small-to-moderate effect on oppositional behaviour in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD. There is high-quality evidence that atomoxetine has a small effect on oppositional behaviour in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. Evidence indicates that psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine can be beneficial for disruptive and aggressive behaviours in addition to core ADHD symptoms; however, psychostimulants generally provide the most benefit.Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie 02/2015; 60(2):42-51. · 2.41 Impact Factor