Effect of thickening agents, based an soluble dietary fiber, on the availability of calcium, iron, and zinc from infant formulas

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of Food Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Wilrijk), Belgium.
Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.05). 07/2001; 17(7-8):614-8. DOI: 10.1016/S0899-9007(01)00541-X
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although it is accepted that dietary fiber probably is not needed in the diets of infants younger than 1 y, babies suffering from regurgitation are often fed with infant formulas thickened with considerable amounts of fiber. The effect of increasing amounts of alginic acid, locust-bean gum, and guar gum was studied from casein and whey-based infant formulas. A dialysis in vitro method with preliminary intraluminal digestion, adapted to the conditions of infants younger than 6 mo, was used. Human milk was used as the reference standard. Elemental contents of samples and dialysates were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Soluble dietary fiber inhibited mineral availability more in casein than in whey-based formulas. Mineral availabilities from casein- and whey-based formulas supplemented with 0.42 g of locust-bean gum/100 mL were 9.4% (0.7) and 10.4% (0.6) for calcium (P < 0.05), 0.32% (0.08) and 1.45% (0.17) for iron (P < 0.05), and 3.2% (0.2) and 5.6% (0.5) for zinc (P < 0.05), respectively. Calcium availability from the whey formula decreased in the presence of each fiber source, especially guar gum and alginic acid. Supplementing 2 g of alginic acid-based agents per 100 mL depressed calcium availability from 13.3% (1.2) to 5.3% (0.3; P < 0.05). With respect to iron and zinc, availabilities increased from 1.28% (0.28) to 6.05% (0.96; P < 0.05) and from 6.7% (0.6) to 10.2% (1.0), respectively, with the addition of 2 g of alginic acid (P < 0.05). Both gums lowered iron and zinc availabilities, and guar gum affected iron availability more severely than locust-bean gum did. Iron availabilities were 1.45% (0.17) from formula thickened with locust-bean gum (0.42 g/100 mL) and 0.92% (0.15) from formula thickened with guar gum (P < 0.05). Adding thickening agents based on soluble dietary fiber to traditional infant formulas probably affects calcium, iron, and zinc availability in various ways.


Available from: Hendrik Deelstra, Nov 04, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous in vitro results indicated that alginate beads might be a useful vehicle for food iron fortification. A human study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that alginate enhances iron absorption. A randomised, single blinded, cross-over trial was carried out in which iron absorption was measured from serum iron appearance after a test meal. Overnight-fasted volunteers (n = 15) were given a test meal of 200 g cola-flavoured jelly plus 21 mg iron as ferrous gluconate, either in alginate beads mixed into the jelly or in a capsule. Iron absorption was lower from the alginate beads than from ferrous gluconate (8.5% and 12.6% respectively, p = 0.003). Sub-group B (n = 9) consumed the test meals together with 600 mg calcium to determine whether alginate modified the inhibitory effect of calcium. Calcium reduced iron absorption from ferrous gluconate by 51%, from 11.5% to 5.6% (p = 0.014), and from alginate beads by 37%, from 8.3% to 5.2% (p = 0.009). In vitro studies using Caco-2 cells were designed to explore the reasons for the difference between the previous in vitro findings and the human study; confirmed the inhibitory effect of alginate. Beads similar to those used in the human study were subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion, with and without cola jelly, and the digestate applied to Caco-2 cells. Both alginate and cola jelly significantly reduced iron uptake into the cells, by 34% (p = 0.009) and 35% (p = 0.003) respectively. The combination of cola jelly and calcium produced a very low ferritin response, 16.5% (p<0.001) of that observed with ferrous gluconate alone. The results of these studies demonstrate that alginate beads are not a useful delivery system for soluble salts of iron for the purpose of food fortification.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112144. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112144 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Conclusions A wide range of minerals is essential for human health. The recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) serve as guidelines for daily intakes of nutrients that population groups in the United States should have in their diets. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) have been established for the following essential minerals: calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. In addition, DRIs have been set for other trace elements, which have been identified to have important-if not essential roles in maintaining health. These include: iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, boron, chromium, cobalt, molybdenum, vanadium, nickel, lithium, iodine and fluoride(1). There is evidence that the need for mineral intake is not being met, especially in certain subpopulations. It is difficult for most individuals to ingest enough calcium from foods available in a cereal-based economy without liberal consumption of dairy products, for example.(2) Supplementation with minerals is recommended to complement dietary intake and avoid deficiencies. (3) Mineral supplements are associated with different absorptive capacities. The absorption of minerals depends on a number of physiological, biochemical, and hormonal characteristics of the consumer and the form of the mineral consumed. Potential mineral sources are not all alike and should be evaluated for bioavailability.(4) Factors that enhance mineral absorption include the form of the mineral ingested, maintenance of chemical stability, presence of a specific transporter, small particle size, solubility, ascorbic acid, and low intestinal motility. Factors that inhibit absorption include oxalic acid, phytic acid, (5) fiber(6), sodium, tannins(7), caffeine, protein, fat, antacids, rapid transit time, malabsorption syndromes, precipitation by alkalinization, other minerals(8), hormones and nutritional status(9). Colloidal minerals exhibit properties that enhance absorption. Principles of biochemistry support the view that colloidal minerals may be more bioavailable than minerals in solid supplement or food forms. A number of diseases are associated with mineral deficiencies or impaired metabolism of minerals. Supplementation with minerals has improved the nutritional status and lowered disease risk and progression factors among patients with arthritis, diabetes, cancer, anorexia, and hypertension.
  • Source