Effect of thickening agents, based an soluble dietary fiber, on the availability of calcium, iron, and zinc from infant formulas

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of Food Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Wilrijk), Belgium.
Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.93). 07/2001; 17(7-8):614-8. DOI: 10.1016/S0899-9007(01)00541-X
Source: PubMed


Although it is accepted that dietary fiber probably is not needed in the diets of infants younger than 1 y, babies suffering from regurgitation are often fed with infant formulas thickened with considerable amounts of fiber. The effect of increasing amounts of alginic acid, locust-bean gum, and guar gum was studied from casein and whey-based infant formulas. A dialysis in vitro method with preliminary intraluminal digestion, adapted to the conditions of infants younger than 6 mo, was used. Human milk was used as the reference standard. Elemental contents of samples and dialysates were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Soluble dietary fiber inhibited mineral availability more in casein than in whey-based formulas. Mineral availabilities from casein- and whey-based formulas supplemented with 0.42 g of locust-bean gum/100 mL were 9.4% (0.7) and 10.4% (0.6) for calcium (P < 0.05), 0.32% (0.08) and 1.45% (0.17) for iron (P < 0.05), and 3.2% (0.2) and 5.6% (0.5) for zinc (P < 0.05), respectively. Calcium availability from the whey formula decreased in the presence of each fiber source, especially guar gum and alginic acid. Supplementing 2 g of alginic acid-based agents per 100 mL depressed calcium availability from 13.3% (1.2) to 5.3% (0.3; P < 0.05). With respect to iron and zinc, availabilities increased from 1.28% (0.28) to 6.05% (0.96; P < 0.05) and from 6.7% (0.6) to 10.2% (1.0), respectively, with the addition of 2 g of alginic acid (P < 0.05). Both gums lowered iron and zinc availabilities, and guar gum affected iron availability more severely than locust-bean gum did. Iron availabilities were 1.45% (0.17) from formula thickened with locust-bean gum (0.42 g/100 mL) and 0.92% (0.15) from formula thickened with guar gum (P < 0.05). Adding thickening agents based on soluble dietary fiber to traditional infant formulas probably affects calcium, iron, and zinc availability in various ways.

Download full-text


Available from: Hendrik Deelstra, Nov 04, 2014
    • "Alginates are widely used in many different applications because of their versatile properties that can be monitored according to different stimuli (concentration, temperature, pH, etc.). In aqueous solution, alginates are usually employed as thickening agents to increase the viscosity of the medium [18]. In the presence of cations (usually divalent or trivalent), they can produce a hydrogel according to a complexation mechanism. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Three adsorbents, namely, bentonite-alginate beads, activated carbon-alginate beads, and activated carbon-bentonite-alginate beads (ABA) were prepared for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). The effects of solution pH (3-11), temperature (30, 40, and 50. °C), initial concentration (25-500. mg/L), and contact time were investigated. Results showed that the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of ABA beads for the adsorption of MB was 756.97. mg/g at 30. °C. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics illustrated the suitability of employing the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium adsorption data fitted the Freundlich isotherm well. In addition, the ABA composite exhibited more than 70% adsorption uptake capacity after six regeneration cycles. The outcomes of this study suggest the potential of ABA composite for cationic dye removal.
  • Source
    • "Fermentation of dough caused significant differences (p < 0.05) in calcium solubility and dialysis between white bread and whole-wheat bread, with a higher increase in the first. The higher amount of calcium observed in whole-wheat flour and its product (ranging between 17.4 and 20.8 mg/100 g), compared with wheat flour (ranging between 16.1 and 1.29 mg/100 g), as well as the higher amount of fiber in whole cereals, which has been reported to affect mineral availability (Bosscher et al., 2001), are probably the main causes. In relation to the effect of the baking process on calcium solubility and dialysis percentages, we observed an increase in values with respect to the fermentation stage in white bread and muffin. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Whole-grain bakery products and cereals are valuable sources of dietary fiber, vitamins, and trace elements. However, the presence of phytate, could decreases mineral bioavailability due to its chelating properties. In this study, the effect of fermentation and baking on the phytate content of different bakery products was measured by HPLC; the mineral availability in bakery products during processing was investigated by measuring solubility and dialysis, as well as the mineral uptake and transport by Caco-2 cells after in vitro digestion. Raw materials showed the highest amount of phytate, causing an important effect on the stage of processing. The solubility and dialyzability of iron increased with fermentation, meanwhile calcium and zinc showed a high variability depending on the product analyzed. After baking, the dialyzability of minerals increased with respect to the fermented dough in most cases. The highest uptake and transport efficiency of iron and calcium in cells corresponded to dough after fermentation of wheat flour with respect to the baked samples. For zinc, no differences were observed between fermented dough and after baking on uptake and transport efficiencies. This study showed that in vitro mineral availability of bakery products is influenced by the stage of processing and ingredients used.
    Journal of Cereal Science 07/2011; 54(1):173-179. DOI:10.1016/j.jcs.2011.02.015 · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Na-alginate is isolated from number of brown seaweed species. Feeding humans and rats high levels of alginate has been shown to -carotene (Riedl et al. 1999) and minerals (Harmuth-Hoene et al. 1980; Bosscher et al. 2001). Alginate is considered to influence digestibility and availability of nutrients from the diet (Terada et al. 1995; Bach Knudsen 2001, Drochner et al. 2004). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Physiological effects of Chlorella vulgaris, alginate, two mixtures of essential oils and inulin on immune and stress response were investigated in piglets fed a diet with the respective supplement from weaning at day 28. The experiment was performed at an experimental (EF) and a commercial farm (CF). At day 39 transcript levels of molecular expression markers for immune response (Toll-like receptor 4, TLR4, inductible nitric oxide synthase, iNOS), oxidative stress response (glutathione S-transferase A1, GSTA1), cellular stress response (heat shock protein 70.1, HSP70.1) and for general translation activity (eukaryotic release factor 1, eRF1) in ileal mucosa and ileocolic lymph nodes were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, expression of eRF1 in liver was analysed. Down-regulation of GSTA1 and up-regulation of eRF1 in ileal mucosa from inulin fed piglets suggested an increased metabolic activity and reduced oxidative stress response. Farm had strong effect on expression level of the studied genes (P<0.001). Up-regulated TLR4 and iNOS in ileocolic lymph nodes of piglets kept at CF indicated an elevated immune response of the animals in comparison with the EF. Moreover, up-regulated GSTA1 and eRF1 in ileal mucosa suggested an increased metabolic activity associated with increased oxidative stress response.
Show more