Sub-inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin prevent quinolone-resistance in a penicillin-resistant isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Department of Internal Medicine, Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne, Switzerland.
BMC Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.1). 02/2001; 1:9. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-1-9
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The continuous spread of penicillin-resistant pneumococci represents a permanent threat in the treatment of pneumococcal infections, especially when strains show additional resistance to quinolones. The main objective of this study was to determine a treatment modality impeding the emergence of quinolone resistance.
Exposure of a penicillin-resistant pneumococcus to increasing concentrations of trovafloxacin or ciprofloxacin selected for mutants resistant to these drugs. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin, development of trovafloxacin-resistance and high-level ciprofloxacin-resistance were prevented.
Considering the risk of quinolone-resistance in pneumococci, the observation might be of clinical importance.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The treatment of pneumococcal meningitis remains a major challenge, as reflected by the continued high morbidity and case fatality of the disease. The worldwide increase of penicillin-resistant pneumococci and more recently cephalosporin- and vancomycin-tolerant pneumococci has jeopardised the efficacy of standard treatments based on extended spectrum cephalosporins alone or in combination with vancomycin. This review provides a summary of newly developed antibiotics tested in the rabbit meningitis model. In particular, newer beta-lactam monotherapies (cefepime, meropenem, ertapenem), recently developed quinolones (garenoxacin, gemifloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin) and a lipopeptide antibiotic (daptomycin) are discussed. A special emphasis is placed on the potential role of combination treatments with some of the new compounds, which are of interest based on the background of increasing resistance problems due to their often synergistic activity in the rabbit model of pneumococcal meningitis.
    Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 05/2004; 13(4):393-401. · 4.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Penicillin resistance in Streptococcus spp. involves multiple mutations in both penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and non-PBP genes. Here, we studied the development of penicillin resistance in the oral commensal Streptococcus gordonii. Cyclic exposure of bacteria to twofold-increasing penicillin concentrations selected for a progressive 250- to 500-fold MIC increase (from 0.008 to between 2 and 4 microg/ml). The major MIC increase (> or = 35-fold) was related to non-PBP mutations, whereas PBP mutations accounted only for a 4- to 8-fold additional increase. PBP mutations occurred in class B PBPs 2X and 2B, which carry a transpeptidase domain, but not in class A PBP 1A, 1B, or 2A, which carry an additional transglycosylase domain. Therefore, we tested whether inactivation of class A PBPs affected resistance development in spite of the absence of mutations. Deletion of PBP 1A or 2A profoundly slowed down resistance development but only moderately affected resistance in already highly resistant mutants (MIC = 2 to 4 microg/ml). Thus, class A PBPs might facilitate early development of resistance by stabilizing penicillin-altered peptidoglycan via transglycosylation, whereas they might be less indispensable in highly resistant mutants which have reestablished a penicillin-insensitive cell wall-building machinery. The contribution of PBP and non-PBP mutations alone could be individualized in DNA transformation. Both PBP and non-PBP mutations conferred some level of intrinsic resistance, but combining the mutations synergized them to ensure high-level resistance (> or = 2 microg/ml). The results underline the complexity of penicillin resistance development and suggest that inhibition of transglycosylase might be an as yet underestimated way to interfere with early resistance development.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 01/2007; 50(12):4053-61. · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Activity of rifampicin against Propionibacterium acnes biofilms was recently demonstrated, but rifampicin resistance has not yet been described in this organism. We investigated the in vitro emergence of rifampicin resistance in P. acnes and characterized its molecular background. METHODS: P. acnes ATCC 11827 was used (MIC 0.007 mg/L). The mutation rate was determined by inoculation of 10(9) cfu of P. acnes on rifampicin-containing agar plates incubated anaerobically for 7 days. Progressive emergence of resistance was studied by serial exposure to increasing concentrations of rifampicin in 72 h cycles using a low (10(6) cfu/mL) and high (10(8) cfu/mL) inoculum. The stability of resistance was determined after three subcultures of rifampicin-resistant isolates on rifampicin-free agar. For resistant mutants, the whole rpoB gene was amplified, sequenced and compared with a P. acnes reference sequence (NC006085). RESULTS: P. acnes growth was observed on rifampicin-containing plates with mutation rates of 2 ± 1 cfu × 10(-9) (4096× MIC) and 12 ± 5 cfu × 10(-9) (4× MIC). High-level rifampicin resistance emerged progressively after 4 (high inoculum) and 13 (low inoculum) cycles. In rifampicin-resistant isolates, the MIC remained >32 mg/L after three subcultures. Mutations were detected in clusters I (amino acids 418-444) and II (amino acids 471-486) of the rpoB gene after sequence alignment with a Staphylococcus aureus reference sequence (CAA45512). The five following substitutions were found: His-437 → Tyr, Ser-442 → Leu, Leu-444 → Ser, Ile-483 → Val and Ser-485 → Leu. CONCLUSION: The rifampicin MIC increased from highly susceptible to highly resistant values. The resistance remained stable and was associated with mutations in the rpoB gene. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the emergence of rifampicin resistance in P. acnes.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 10/2012; · 5.34 Impact Factor


Available from