Illicit drug use in one's social network and in one's neighborhood predicts individual heroin and cocaine use.
ABSTRACT The nature of competing social environmental factors' influence on substance abuse is unclear. A longitudinal study was undertaken to determine the relative power of social network and neighborhood characteristics to predict continuing illicit drug use.
Three hundred forty-two inner-city adults with a history of injection drug use were followed for 1 year; their heroin and cocaine use were assessed semiannually. Multiple logistic regression models were fit to determine the degree to which social network and neighborhood characteristics, assessed at baseline, predicted continuing heroin and/or cocaine use throughout the study period.
Two hundred thirty-six (69%) participants reported continuing heroin and/or cocaine use. Drug use by members of the social network was a stronger predictor of participants' continuing drug use (OR = 4.31, 95% CI 2.51 to 7.40) than was a high level of drug-related arrests in the participant's neighborhood (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.24 to 4.71), after adjusting for drug treatment and demographic variables. Both seemed to have independent effects on study participants' drug use.
These findings reiterate the importance of breaking ties with drug-using associates, even for those who reside in high-risk environments. Further work is needed to develop interventions that increase drug users' success in altering social network composition or also treat drug-using network members.
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ABSTRACT: In this article we consider the process of adjustment from active street sex work to life in structured substance abuse treatment among Detroit-area women who participated in a semicoercive program administered through a drug court. We examine this transition in terms of changes in daily routines and social networks, drawing on extensive qualitative data to illuminate the ways in which women defined their own situations. Using concepts from Bourdieu and Latour as analytical aids, we analyze the role of daily routines, environments, and networks in producing the shifts in identity that those who embraced the goals of recovery demonstrated. We conclude with a discussion of how the restrictive environments and redundant situations experienced by women in treatment could be paradoxically embraced as a means to achieve expanded opportunity and enhanced individual responsibility because women effectively reassembled their social networks and identities to align with the goals of recovery.Qualitative Health Research 09/2014; 25(2). DOI:10.1177/1049732314552454 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article presents findings from a photovoice project designed to identify service needs of older-adult African American methadone clients, as well as their current barriers to and supports for abstinence. The project involved 10 participants (aged 53 to 63 years old) recruited from a methadone maintenance program in a large Northeastern U.S. city. Thematic analysis techniques were used to analyze participants’ narratives of their pictures. Transportation emerged as a significant challenge to accessing services, and caregiving was a motivation for remaining abstinent. Future research should use similar participatory methods and engage a broader group of aging people struggling with substance abuse.Journal of Social Service Research 10/2011; 37(5):526-538. DOI:10.1080/01488376.2011.607369 · 0.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We empirically identified subtypes of inner-city users of heroin and cocaine based on type of drug used and route of administration. The sample was recruited from the communities in Baltimore, MD (SHIELD study) and consisted of 1061 participants who used heroin and or cocaine in the past 6 months on a weekly basis or more. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify subtypes of drug users based on type of drug and route of administration. Logistic regression was used to compare the subtypes on depressive symptoms, injection risk and drug network compositions. Inner-city drug users were classified into five subtypes: three subtypes of injection drug users (IDUs) [heroin injecting (n=134; 13%), polydrug and polyroute (n=88, 8%), and heroin and cocaine injecting (n=404, 38%)], and two subtypes with low proportions of IDUs (LIDUs) [heroin snorting (n=275, 26%) and crack smoking (n=160; 14%)]. The polydrug and polyroute subtype had the highest depressive symptoms risk among all subtypes. Injection risk was lowest in the heroin injecting subtype and significantly differed from heroin and cocaine injecting subtype. The IDU subtypes also varied in the drug network compositions. The LIDU subtypes had similar depressive symptoms risk but vastly differed in the drug network compositions. Subgroups of inner-city cocaine and heroin users based on type and route of administration differed in their depressive symptoms, injection risk and drug network compositions. Future studies should longitudinally examine factors associated with transitioning across these subtypes to better inform prevention and treatment efforts.Drug and alcohol dependence 04/2011; 118(2-3):237-43. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.03.030 · 3.28 Impact Factor