Spatial-temporal patterning of metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate, calcium, and protein kinase C oscillations: protein kinase C-dependent receptor phosphorylation is not required.
ABSTRACT The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR), mGluR1a and mGluR5a, are G protein-coupled receptors that couple via G(q) to the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides, the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, and the activation of protein kinase C (PKC). We show here that mGluR1/5 activation results in oscillatory G protein coupling to phospholipase C thereby stimulating oscillations in both inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate formation and intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. The mGluR1/5-stimulated Ca(2+) oscillations are translated into the synchronized repetitive redistribution of PKCbetaII between the cytosol and plasma membrane. The frequency at which mGluR1a and mGluR5a subtypes stimulate inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate, Ca(2+), and PKCbetaII oscillations is regulated by the charge of a single amino acid residue localized within their G protein-coupling domains. However, oscillatory mGluR signaling does not involve the repetitive feedback phosphorylation and desensitization of mGluR activity, since mutation of the putative PKC consensus sites within the first and second intracellular loops as well as the carboxyl-terminal tail does not prevent mGluR1a-stimulated PKCbetaII oscillations. Furthermore, oscillations in Ca(2+) continued in the presence of PKC inhibitors, which blocked PKCbetaII redistribution from the plasma membrane back into the cytosol. We conclude that oscillatory mGluR signaling represents an intrinsic receptor/G protein coupling property that does not involve PKC feedback phosphorylation.
- SourceAvailable from: Zong-Yong Zhang[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is one of the important excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the central nervous system, and its desensitization by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) plays an important role in neuron protection against receptor overstimulation. It is reported that GRK2 could down-regulate the mGluR5 signaling in both HEK 293 cells and neurons. However, whether GRK2-mediated mGluR5 desensitization is phosphorylation dependent remains controversial. Here, we demonstrated that the signal intensity and kinetics of mGluR5 desensitization was inhibited or changed by GRK2 in HEK 293 cells. By using the catalytically inactive GRK2 mutant K220R, and the receptor mutants that lack potential phosphorylation sites in the C-terminal tail, we demonstrated that the GRK2-mediated mGluR5 desensitization was phosphorylation-independent. Furthermore, overexpression of an N-terminal regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) homology (RH) domain of GRK2 was sufficient to attenuate the mGluR5 signaling, whereas the expression of GRK2 D110A mutant devoid in Gαq binding was unable to inhibit mGluR5 signaling. In summary, this study provides evidence that GRK2 mediates phosphorylationindependent mGluR5 desensitization via the interaction between the RGS domain and Gαq in HEK 293 cells.Molecular Biology 47(1). · 0.64 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) is a Gα(q/11)-coupled seven-transmembrane receptor activated by a group of peptides referred to as kisspeptins (Kps). The Kp/KISS1R signaling system is a powerful regulator of GnRH secretion, and inactivating mutations in this system are associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. A recent study revealed that Kp triggers prolonged signaling; not from the inability of the receptor to undergo rapid desensitization, but instead from the maintenance of a dynamic and active pool of KISS1R at the cell surface. To investigate this further, we hypothesized that if a dynamic pool of receptor is maintained at the cell surface for a protracted period, chronic Kp-10 treatment would trigger the sustained activation of Gα(q/11) as evidenced through the prolonged activation of phospholipase C, protein kinase C, and prolonged mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+). Through single-cell analyses, we tested our hypothesis in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and found that was indeed the case. We subsequently determined that prolonged KISS1R signaling was not a phenomenon specific to HEK 293 cells but is likely a conserved property of KISS1R-expressing cells because evidence of sustained KISS1R signaling was also observed in the GT1-7 GnRH neuronal and Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. While exploring the regulation of prolonged KISS1R signaling, we identified a critical role for extracellular Ca(2+). We found that although free intracellular Ca(2+), primarily derived from intracellular stores, was sufficient to trigger the acute activation of a major KISS1R secondary effector, protein kinase C, it was insufficient to sustain chronic KISS1R signaling; instead extracellular Ca(2+) was absolutely required for this.Endocrinology 10/2012; · 4.72 Impact Factor
- Journal of Cell Science - J CELL SCI. 01/2003; 116(8):1527-1538.