Spatial-temporal patterning of metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate, calcium, and protein kinase C oscillations: protein kinase C-dependent receptor phosphorylation is not required.
ABSTRACT The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR), mGluR1a and mGluR5a, are G protein-coupled receptors that couple via G(q) to the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides, the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, and the activation of protein kinase C (PKC). We show here that mGluR1/5 activation results in oscillatory G protein coupling to phospholipase C thereby stimulating oscillations in both inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate formation and intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. The mGluR1/5-stimulated Ca(2+) oscillations are translated into the synchronized repetitive redistribution of PKCbetaII between the cytosol and plasma membrane. The frequency at which mGluR1a and mGluR5a subtypes stimulate inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate, Ca(2+), and PKCbetaII oscillations is regulated by the charge of a single amino acid residue localized within their G protein-coupling domains. However, oscillatory mGluR signaling does not involve the repetitive feedback phosphorylation and desensitization of mGluR activity, since mutation of the putative PKC consensus sites within the first and second intracellular loops as well as the carboxyl-terminal tail does not prevent mGluR1a-stimulated PKCbetaII oscillations. Furthermore, oscillations in Ca(2+) continued in the presence of PKC inhibitors, which blocked PKCbetaII redistribution from the plasma membrane back into the cytosol. We conclude that oscillatory mGluR signaling represents an intrinsic receptor/G protein coupling property that does not involve PKC feedback phosphorylation.
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ABSTRACT: The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is one of the important excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the central nervous system, and its desensitization by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) plays an important role in neuron protection against receptor overstimulation. It is reported that GRK2 could down-regulate the mGluR5 signaling in both HEK 293 cells and neurons. However, whether GRK2-mediated mGluR5 desensitization is phosphorylation dependent remains controversial. Here, we demonstrated that the signal intensity and kinetics of mGluR5 desensitization was inhibited or changed by GRK2 in HEK 293 cells. By using the catalytically inactive GRK2 mutant K220R, and the receptor mutants that lack potential phosphorylation sites in the C-terminal tail, we demonstrated that the GRK2-mediated mGluR5 desensitization was phosphorylation-independent. Furthermore, overexpression of an N-terminal regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) homology (RH) domain of GRK2 was sufficient to attenuate the mGluR5 signaling, whereas the expression of GRK2 D110A mutant devoid in Gαq binding was unable to inhibit mGluR5 signaling. In summary, this study provides evidence that GRK2 mediates phosphorylationindependent mGluR5 desensitization via the interaction between the RGS domain and Gαq in HEK 293 cells.Molecular Biology 47(1). · 0.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations induced by oxytocin and vasopressin were analyzed in a rat liver cell line (Clone 9) in order to identify mechanisms by which benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) alters Ca2+ signaling patterns in these cells. Clone 9 cells exhibit an initial Ca2+ spike, followed by Ca2+ oscillations upon oxytocin or vasopressin treatment. The range of frequencies (maximum 110 mHz) was dependent on agonist concentration with a constant amplitude less than or equal to the amount of Ca2+ generated from the inositol trisphosphate (InsP(3))-sensitive pool. This study examined contributions of extracellular and intracellular pools to the frequency of Ca2+ oscillations and the role of membrane channels, second messengers, and different pharmacological reagents on the regulation of oscillation frequency in both control and BaP-treated cells. Results indicated that the Ca2+ oscillations are mainly due to inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP(3))-sensitive stores and that extracellular Ca2+ contributes to refilling of this intracellular Ca2+ pool. The frequency of Ca2+ oscillations is also sharply affected by protein kinase C activated by phospholipase C. In BaP-treated Clone 9 cells, basal Ca2+ levels were elevated and the frequency of Ca2+ oscillations was suppressed in a dose-dependent fashion. Suppression of Ca2+ oscillations is due, at least in part, to an effect of BaP on enhanced opening of K+ channels. This was confirmed by showing that inhibition of the K+ channel opening by tetraethylammonium chloride can reverse the effect of BaP on oxytocin-induced Ca2+ oscillations, and potentially decrease the toxicity of BaP.Toxicological Sciences 09/2002; 68(2):444-50. · 4.33 Impact Factor
- Journal of Cell Science - J CELL SCI. 01/2003; 116(8):1527-1538.