Spatial-temporal patterning of metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate, calcium, and protein kinase C oscillations - Protein kinase C-dependent receptor phosphorylation is not required
ABSTRACT The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR), mGluR1a and mGluR5a, are G protein-coupled receptors that couple via G(q) to the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides, the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, and the activation of protein kinase C (PKC). We show here that mGluR1/5 activation results in oscillatory G protein coupling to phospholipase C thereby stimulating oscillations in both inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate formation and intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. The mGluR1/5-stimulated Ca(2+) oscillations are translated into the synchronized repetitive redistribution of PKCbetaII between the cytosol and plasma membrane. The frequency at which mGluR1a and mGluR5a subtypes stimulate inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate, Ca(2+), and PKCbetaII oscillations is regulated by the charge of a single amino acid residue localized within their G protein-coupling domains. However, oscillatory mGluR signaling does not involve the repetitive feedback phosphorylation and desensitization of mGluR activity, since mutation of the putative PKC consensus sites within the first and second intracellular loops as well as the carboxyl-terminal tail does not prevent mGluR1a-stimulated PKCbetaII oscillations. Furthermore, oscillations in Ca(2+) continued in the presence of PKC inhibitors, which blocked PKCbetaII redistribution from the plasma membrane back into the cytosol. We conclude that oscillatory mGluR signaling represents an intrinsic receptor/G protein coupling property that does not involve PKC feedback phosphorylation.
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ABSTRACT: Cyclical phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of a key residue within the C-terminal domain of the activated type 5 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu₅) receptor is believed to cause the synchronous, oscillatory changes in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and Ca²⁺ levels observed in a variety of cell types. Here, we have attempted to better define the kinase and phosphatase enzymes involved in this modulation. Ca²⁺ and [³H]inositol phosphate ([³H]IP(x) ) measurements in astrocyte preparations have been used to evaluate the effects of pharmacological inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) and protein phosphatase activities and small interfering RNA-mediated specific PKC isoenzymic knock-down on mGlu₅ receptor signalling. Ca²⁺ oscillation frequency or [³H]IP(x) accumulation in astrocytes stimulated by mGlu₅ receptors, was concentration-dependently decreased by protein phosphatase-1/2A inhibition or by PKC activation. PKC inhibition also increased [³H]IP(x) accumulation two- to threefold and changed the Ca²⁺ response into a peak-plateau response. However, selective inhibition of conventional PKC isoenzymes or preventing changes in [Ca²⁺](i) concentration by BAPTA-AM loading was without effect on mGlu₅ receptor-stimulated [³H]IP(x) accumulation. Selective knock-down of PKCδ was without effect on glutamate-stimulated Ca²⁺ responses; however, selective PKCε knock-down in astrocytes changed Ca²⁺ responses from oscillatory into peak-plateau type. These data confirm the acute regulation of mGlu₅ receptor signalling by protein kinases and protein phosphatases and provide novel data pinpointing the isoenzymic dependence of this regulation in the native mGlu₅ receptor-expressing rat cortical astrocyte. These data also highlight a potential alternative mechanism by which mGlu₅ receptor signalling might be therapeutically manipulated.British Journal of Pharmacology 04/2011; 164(2b):755-71. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01421.x · 4.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR5 subtypes) are densely expressed in mammalian brain. They are actively involved in the regulation of normal cellular activity and synaptic plasticity, and are frequently linked to the pathogenesis of various mental illnesses. Like ionotropic glutamate receptors, group I mGluRs are subject to the regulation by protein phosphorylation. Accumulative data demonstrate sufficient phosphorylation of the intracellular mGluR1/5 domains at specific serine/threonine sites by protein kinase C in heterologous cells or neurons, which serves as an important mechanism for regulating the receptor signaling and desensitization. Emerging evidence also shows the significant involvements of G protein-coupled receptor kinases, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, tyrosine kinases, and protein phosphatases in controlling the phosphorylation status of group I mGluRs. This review analyzes the recent data concerning group I mGluR phosphorylation and the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of group I mGluR function. Future research directions in this area with newly available high throughput and proteomic approaches are also discussed in the end.Neuropharmacology 07/2008; 55(4):403-8. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2008.05.034 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) processes substantial visceral afferent input and sends divergent projections to a wide array of CNS targets. The NST is essential to the maintenance of behavioural and autonomic homeostasis and is the source, as well as the recipient, of considerable noradrenergic (NE) projections. The significance of NE projections from the NST to other CNS regions has long been appreciated, but the nature of NE action on NST neurones themselves, especially on the alpha-1 receptor subtype, is controversial. We used a combination of methodologies to establish, systematically, the effects and cellular basis of action of the alpha-1 agonist, phenylephrine (PHE), to control NST neurones responsible for vago-vagal reflex regulation of the stomach. Immunocytochemical and retrograde tracing studies verified that the area postrema, A2, A5, ventrolateral medulla and locus coeruleus regions are sources of catecholaminergic input to the NST. In vivo electrophysiological recordings showed that PHE activates physiologically identified, second-order gastric sensory NST neurones. In vivo microinjection of PHE onto NST neurones caused a significant reduction in gastric tone. Finally, in vitro calcium imaging studies revealed that PHE caused dramatic cytosolic calcium oscillations in NST neurones. These oscillations are probably the result of an interplay between agonist-induced and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-mediated intracellular calcium release and Ca(2+)-ATPase control of intracellular calcium storage pumps. The oscillations persisted even in perfusions of zero calcium-EGTA Krebs solution suggesting that the calcium oscillation is mediated principally by intracellular calcium release-reuptake mechanisms. Cyclical activation of the NST may function to increase the responsiveness of these neurones to incoming afferent input (i.e., elevate the "gain"). An increase in gain of afferent input may cause an amplification of the response part of the reflex and help explain the powerful effects that alpha-1 agonists have in suppressing gastric motility and producing anorexia.The Journal of Physiology 01/2005; 562(Pt 2):553-68. DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2004.076919 · 4.54 Impact Factor