Normal test scores in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kuopio, Finland.
Documenta Ophthalmologica (Impact Factor: 1.63). 02/2001; 102(1):73-80. DOI: 10.1023/A:1017553532092
Source: PubMed


One hundred and sixty persons aged from 10 to 69 years (106 women, 54 men) with healthy eyes were studied with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue (FM100) test. The mean of the results in the total scores and in the individual box scores in the right and left eye were calculated. The total score was also separately calculated in women and men. The test was administered under the illumination of Macbeth Easel lamp, 1000 lux, and the right eye was tested first. The results were calculated in six different age groups, 10-19 years, 20-29 years, etc. The mean of the total scores in the right eye varied from 7.44+/-2.46 (SD) to 10.07+/-2.03 in different age groups and in the left eye from 7.56+/-2.36 to 10.16+/-2.68. The scores changed significantly with the age: the correlation between the age and the test scores by linear regression gave significant results, in the right eye (R = 0.308, P = 0.0001), and in the left eye (R = 0.246, P = 0.0021). The present study with the normal error scores in the FM100 test and its individual boxes in persons aged 10-69 years gives clinicians working with colour vision defects a possibility to estimate the normality or abnormality of the results in their patients.

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    • "The F–M 100 hue test total error score is highly dependent on the age, the older a subject is, the more errors he makes. The study by Mantyjarvi and Terasvirta showed that the total error scores of the F–M 100 test were 120 mistakes in the 60–69- year-old age group [30]. Kessel et al. found that the results of the F–M 100 test were very similar (83 AE 79 mistakes) in healthy persons in Denmark [31] compared to our results (87.39 AE 24.11 mistakes). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objective: To determine the association between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and color perception established by the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue (F-M 100) and maximum color contrast sensitivity (MCCS) tests. Materials and methods: We performed a case-control study, which comprised of 100 patients with AMD and 100 healthy controls. To test visual acuity (VA), a typical Snellen chart was used. The computerized F-M 100 and MCCS programs were used for color discrimination. Results: The results of VA, and the F-M 100 and MCCS tests in the healthy controls were statistically significantly better than in the patients with AMD (1.0 vs. 0.82±0.16, P=0.005; 87.39±24.11 vs. 185.39±74.43, P=0.005; 1.33±1.17 vs. 1.96±0.46, P=0.005, respectively). When VA was 1.0 in patients with AMD, the total error scores of the F-M 100 test and MCCS test compared with healthy persons were even worse (166.09±66.57 vs. 87.39±24.11, P=0.002; 1.67±0.92 vs. 1.33±1.17, P=0.001, respectively). Analysis of the results of patients with AMD compared to healthy controls showed the highest error score in the blue color range. Conclusions: The results of the color contrast sensitivity test decreased by half in patients with AMD compared with ophthalmologically healthy patients when they performed the F-M 100 test and by one and half when they performed a MCCS test in the blue color range.
    Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania) 11/2014; 50(5). DOI:10.1016/j.medici.2014.10.008 · 0.49 Impact Factor
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    • "Simple task instructions and low task demands allow the test to be used to assess children's colour vision (e.g. Mäntyjärvi, 2001; Roy, Podgor, Collier & Gunkel, 1991; Verriest, Van Laetham & Uvijls, 1982), in some cases for children as young as 5 years old (e.g. Kinnear & Sahraie, 2002), and the task has even been used with children with ADHD (Banaschewski et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Atypical perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is well documented (Dakin & Frith, 2005). However, relatively little is known about colour perception in ASD. Less accurate performance on certain colour tasks has led some to argue that chromatic discrimination is reduced in ASD relative to typical development (Franklin, Sowden, Burley, Notman & Alder, 2008). The current investigation assessed chromatic discrimination in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and typically developing (TD) children matched on age and non-verbal cognitive ability, using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (Experiment 1) and a threshold discrimination task (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, more errors on the chromatic discrimination task were made by the HFA than the TD group. Comparison with test norms revealed that performance for the HFA group was at a similar level to typically developing children around 3 years younger. In Experiment 2, chromatic thresholds were elevated for the HFA group relative to the TD group. For both experiments, reduced chromatic discrimination in ASD was due to a general reduction in chromatic sensitivity rather than a specific difficulty with either red-green or blue-yellow subsystems of colour vision. The absence of group differences on control tasks ruled out an explanation in terms of general task ability rather than chromatic sensitivity. Theories to account for the reduction in chromatic discrimination in HFA are discussed, and findings are related to cortical models of perceptual processing in ASD.
    Developmental Science 01/2010; 13(1):188-200. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2009.00869.x · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    • "It is believed that performance on the FÀM 100-HT varies as a U-shaped function of age. Younger children and older adults make significantly more placement errors compared with younger adults, who give the best performance , so the TES in extreme age groups is higher than in teens and young adults (Mantyjarvi 2001; Kinnear & Sahraie 2002). We took this into account by selecting an agematched control group and by comparing the pre-and postoperative results of each patient. "
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether colour vision improves following reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucoma patients. The medical records of 29 glaucoma patients (41 eyes) were reviewed. Inclusion criteria required subjects to have made more than four visits to the Glaucoma Service Laboratory and to undergo a thorough eye examination including a Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue colour vision test and Goldmann tonometry before and after pressure lowering. Colour vision parameters of total error score (TES), yellow-blue score (YBS) and red-green score (RGS) were measured. The study group consisted of 21 eyes of glaucoma patients who underwent uncomplicated trabeculectomy with an IOP reduction of >/= 20% from baseline. The control group consisted of 21 eyes of glaucoma patients matched for age and colour vision, who received medication and/or underwent surgery with a post-intervention IOP reduction of < 20% from baseline. The primary outcome was a comparison of pre- and post-intervention colour vision parameters between the two groups. There was a statistically significant improvement in TES (43 +/- 44, p < 0.001), RGS (19 +/- 27, p = 0.0077) and YBS (23 +/- 29, p = 0.0007) in the study group compared with the control group. The improvement in TES (r = 0.52, p < 0.001), RGS (r = 0.55, p < 0.001) and YBS (r = 0.40, p = 0.008) was correlated with the percentage of IOP reduction. There was no statistically significant difference between improvement in Y-B and R-G scores in the study group. Intraocular pressure reduction of >/= 20% post-trabeculectomy was associated with an improvement in colour vision. Colour vision tests may be useful as an adjunctive outcome measure for therapeutic interventions.
    Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica 04/2006; 84(2):201-5. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0420.2005.00583.x · 1.85 Impact Factor
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