Normal test scores in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test
ABSTRACT One hundred and sixty persons aged from 10 to 69 years (106 women, 54 men) with healthy eyes were studied with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue (FM100) test. The mean of the results in the total scores and in the individual box scores in the right and left eye were calculated. The total score was also separately calculated in women and men. The test was administered under the illumination of Macbeth Easel lamp, 1000 lux, and the right eye was tested first. The results were calculated in six different age groups, 10-19 years, 20-29 years, etc. The mean of the total scores in the right eye varied from 7.44+/-2.46 (SD) to 10.07+/-2.03 in different age groups and in the left eye from 7.56+/-2.36 to 10.16+/-2.68. The scores changed significantly with the age: the correlation between the age and the test scores by linear regression gave significant results, in the right eye (R = 0.308, P = 0.0001), and in the left eye (R = 0.246, P = 0.0021). The present study with the normal error scores in the FM100 test and its individual boxes in persons aged 10-69 years gives clinicians working with colour vision defects a possibility to estimate the normality or abnormality of the results in their patients.
- SourceAvailable from: uef.fiActa Ophthalmologica Scandinavica 07/2002; 80(3):343-4. DOI:10.1034/j.1600-0420.2002.800322.x · 1.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has been reported that greater age-related losses in sensitivity occur for short-wavelength visual stimuli than for medium- and long-wavelength visual stimuli. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine to what extent optical, receptoral, and postreceptoral factors contribute to these age-related changes in color vision. One hundred two observers (ages 18-87) completed a minimum motion task to determine isoluminance between red and green and between red and blue. A motion-nulling task was also performed to assess the L-M postreceptoral chromatic mechanism. No significant age-related changes occurred in red-green isoluminance values. Red-blue isoluminance values showed a significant and systematic decrease with age in observers with phakic eyes. Pseudophakic eyes in older subjects performed this task as well as phakic eyes in young subjects. The motion-nulling results demonstrated small age-related losses in the postreceptoral color mechanisms. The findings of this experiment, particularly those of the red-blue isoluminance task, indicate that the optical factor of lenticular senescence is the main contributor to the age-related changes observed in color vision. A model based on age-related changes in lenticular absorbance shows good fit with the experimental data of observers with phakic eyes, suggesting that optical factors are the main cause of the age-related changes in these color vision tasks.Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 09/2003; 44(8):3698-704. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was designed to determine whether normal aging and glaucoma are associated with red-green (R/G) chromatic processing abnormalities, a function that is primarily performed by the parvocellular visual pathway. Chromatic processing mechanisms were examined in 98 glaucomatous observers (between the ages of 49 and 93 years; mean age, 70.8 +/- 9.4 [SD]) and 67 normal observers (between the ages of 49 and 88; mean age, 70.6 +/- 10.6 years) with the use of the minimum-motion and motion-nulling paradigms. Phakic glaucomatous (n = 60; mean age, 68.7 +/- 8.9 years) and normal (n = 32; mean age, 69.8 +/- 10.6 years) and pseudophakic glaucomatous (n = 38; mean age, 74 +/- 9.4 years) and normal (n = 35; mean age, 71.4 +/- 10.6 years) subjects were tested to evaluate the effects of lenticular aging on color perception. Phakic observers (normal or glaucomatous) displayed significantly different minimum-motion values than did both their younger counterparts and all the pseudophakic subjects. These results suggest that normal aging with the presence of a natural lens is accompanied by a significant decrease in green-light sensitivity, an effect that is not exacerbated by glaucoma and is primarily related to optical factors. The data also revealed no differences in color motion perception between groups, indicating that the higher cortical mechanisms of the parvocellular pathway implicated in the analysis of information about the middle and long wavelengths of the visible spectrum are not selectively affected by the disease process and normal aging. Normal aging and glaucoma do not produce significant R/G chromatic processing deficits at retinal and postretinal levels when optical factors are excluded. The authors propose the hypothesis that glaucoma-related effects on motion perception and blue-on-yellow perimetry should be viewed as evidence of loss of ganglion cells that necessitates integration of information over larger retinal areas and more receptor cells than in the R/G chromatic system. Ganglion cells with large receptive fields involve more neural connections and are less numerous than those that respond to R/G information. The functional consequence of this could be that the loss of a single ganglion cell with a larger receptive field would have a greater impact on visual function than the loss of a ganglion cell with a smaller receptive field, such as the ones that process R/G information. The authors believe that glaucoma-induced functional loss is best viewed as related to receptive field structure and function rather than to anatomic cell-type damage.Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 09/2004; 45(8):2861-6. DOI:10.1167/iovs.03-1256 · 3.66 Impact Factor